Transcript of the webinar speech on May 13, 2020

Recorded video can be found at: and

Hello everyone!

Thank you Meghan and Ethen for having us to the Webinar. 

Let me begin with wishing you all safety and health during this COVID-19 Pandemic Period. Our library has not been back to normal from the end of February. Now we are only open for half a day everyday.

Today we are very happy to share with you our thoughts and plan for implementation FOLIO in Shanghai Library, as well as to promote FOLIO application and awareness in China.

I am Keven Liu, the deputy director of Shanghai library. Today with me will be two of my colleagues, Zhou Gang and Chen Xiaoyang, 

I am going to give you an overview on the consideration of FOLIO implementation in Shanghai Library, and why we are going to promote the FOLIO application in China. Mr. Zhou Gang will be on the Program of our developing and migration plan in more detail. And Chen Xiaoyang will talk about the FOLIO community activities we have done in the past and will be doing in the near future in China.

At first, I would like to give you a little bit about the background of my library and my city.

As you may know, Shanghai is one of the biggest city in China. And Shanghai Library is the biggest public library in China. The population of Shanghai is 23 million. About a quarter of them (that is about 5.1 million) had a reader’s card issued from the Shanghai library system. 

Generally Shanghai Library has three faces to the public: a stand-alone public and research library, a central library for the Shanghai library consortia which is consists of 256 member and branch libraries, and a professional research institute, which has a name of Institute of Scientific and Technological Information of Shanghai (ISTIS).

The main building of Shanghai library has 83 thousand square meters (that is about 900,000 square feet). The total collection has 55 million items, including a huge collection of special materials such as ancient books, old newspapers and magazines, genealogy, rubbings, maps, diaries and letters of celebrities and so on so forth. We have more than 800 librarians and staffs working in the library everyday.

The circulation transaction number is 66 million a year. There are more than 3 million people visited my library every year. There are about 800 thousand readers checked out more than 30 million books each year from the whole city library system. 

The present Shanghai Library building opened to the public in 1996. With the economic development, the budget of Shanghai Library has been from around 30 million USD in 1996 to around 70 million USD last year.

We are now having a new building under construction, located in the new city center of Pudong area, where it is always pretend to be the center of the universe in Hollywood movies. The overall design is from SHL, a company from Denmark. The new building has 115 thousand square meters of floor space (that is about 1.2 million square feet). It will open to public on Dec. 2021 (the end of next year).

As I just mentioned, Shanghai Library has a second face as the central library of the whole city library consortia, which contains 256 libraries in three tiers by now, and will be expand to around two thousand libraries in four tiers in the next few years. We are now using only one integrated library system for the whole consortia, that is the Horizon System from SirsiDynix. 

We have been running it from 1996.

I am sure some of you are familiar with the interfaces. It’s a magnificent powerful Integrated Library System once upon the time. In the recently issued Library System Report by Marshall Breeding, there are still hundreds of libraries using Horizon for nowadays. 

After running it for more than two decades, as you can see obviously, the system can no longer meet our needs. we are facing with a giant leap and mega-migration for Shanghai Library and the whole Shanghai Library Consortia.

Our requirements are very clear.

We need a service platform not only for Shanghai Library, but for tens of branch libraries, which have their own library branches, in total maybe thousands of them as an integrated consortia.

We should support up to 100 million circulation transaction a year.

We should look after all kinds of activities by up to 15 million registered users in the next few years.

It should provide SaaS ecology with diversified multiple extension modules by all kinds of local vendors, to provide smart library services, reserving services, reading list services, activity management services, 24-hour services, data analytics services, etc.

It should help member and branch libraries to transform and redefine themselves to a more digital world, and re-engineering their workflow to meet new and unknown requirements in the future.

After  keeping track of the library system market for quite a few years, we found nothing can fulfill such requirements above, till we learn the existence of FOLIO. 

We valued the open and sharing spirit of FOLIO, it is perfectly matching the ideas of the Public Libraries.

I agree with the idea that the future of library platform should be open sourced and act as an operation system for libraries.  As a platform it should have an open market for all kinds of stakeholders. And then libraries can choose applications what ever they want to run. 

We libraries should play a key role in the self-serviced environment, which has a spirit can be stated as: “by the community, with the community and for the community”.  

We think it is a breakthrough in the library history which is like no other. And we are very happy to see the most part of FOLIO has been realized in recent years. It has been successfully implemented in Chalmers University in Sweden last September, and will go live in several university libraries this year. 

FOLIO is a future platform with a lot of potentials and promises. FOLIO community has been doing a fantastic job to make the dream come true. 

There is no such a platform better than FOLIO by now, has the capacity to accomplish the countless and agnostic requirements for libraries to go into the future.

But the future of libraries is a moving target. We don’t have a crystal ball that allows us to see the future clearly. The only thing we know is that there will be no future if we just sit there and do nothing instead of actively addressing the disruptive digital challenges.

So we need the new service platform to be flexible enough to adapt all kinds of new technologies and meet all possible requirements. Here has some concerns from Shanghai library. It can also be seen as the critical difficulties to implement FOLIO in Shanghai Library.

•In a library as large and complex as the Shanghai Library, FOLIO is relatively less mature and less sophisticated. We need to do some strengthening and localization.

•Extensive modules are immediate required to meet local needs.

•Multi-tenant has higher priority to support large consortia.

•Market place has higher priority to accommodate diversified requirements and support new business model innovation.

•Robustness, performance and scalability issues need to be fully considered.

We believe that, if FOLIO can be successfully applied in Shanghai library, FOLIO will be decisively invincible and has a very bright future in the library system market around the world. But we need a lot of helps first from the whole FOLIO community, to address such key difficulties above. 

Our goals are also very clear:

•To provide a breakthrough LSP to integrate and upgrade our service capacity for Shanghai Central Library Consortia.

•To curate a lightweight version of open sourced LSP for all kinds of libraries in China.

•To maintain an active community consists of libraries and venders in China.

•To foster an ecosystem by establish an open market and encourage open innovation.

•To explore and incubate new business model for library and information service industry in China. 

As Shanghai Library has a research group under the name of Digital Culture Research Base by the China Ministry of Culture and Tourism. We are regularly present research reports for their reference. So we are not doing things just for Shanghai Library itself, but for the whole library industry in China, especially in the information technology implementation aspect.

That’s why we are willing to curate a FOLIO Chinese version, and to contribute on maintaining an active FOLIO community consists of libraries and venders in China. 

I’m very happy to announce that, with the great help from EBSCO and Jiatu Company, we are now having Mrs. Lucy Liu to join us as a PO (Product Owner) for FOLIO local development and implementation. 

The library market in China consists mainly of public libraries and university libraries. Of course there are many school libraries and other kinds, but I have no statistics of them. So I just take the main two to give you a rough picture.

•The total annual budget of public libraries is around 13 billion RMB in 2015 (ie. about 2 billion USD). 

•The annual budget excluding staff costs for university libraries is about 6.5 billion RMB (about 1 billion USD).

•The collection development costs around 10 billion RMB (public lib has 45%, university lib 55%), of which less than half is for digital resources.

•IT funding is difficult to keep track, usually for hardware, software and services together in total, is around 1.5 billion RMB. Rough estimate of software system is about 400-500 million RMB a year.

As for Library System Market in China, 

•We are now having less than 10 local active venders in total.

•Most of them show great interest in FOLIO and very possible to join the FOLIO alliance, some of them are already the member of CALIS Alliance or Shanghai Alliance.

•But some of them will still develop and maintain their own products. The real competition will be among 3-4 competitors.

•So it’s very important for FOLIO to have a competitive market strategy.

•FOLIO is based on the library community. That’s why the interest from libraries are most important. A lot of libraries are currently very eager to learn about the new LSP.

•If full fledged, FOLIO will be able to capture a large portion of the Chinese market share we believe.

To summarize, we like to provide a very brief SWOT analysis for the  FOLIO application in China, as follows

the Strengths are:

•It is an Open Source Software

•It developed with Micro-services architecture, but there is already a product from another company in the Chinese market that uses spring cloud microservices solution.

•It is community-based self-serviced and vender independent 

•It consists of plug-n-play Web apps

•It provide format agnostic feature and support multiple Knowledge bases.

the Weaknesses are:

•Risk of development delays which is always going to happen in Open Source software development.

•Weak on service support as OSS

•Need powerful community stewardship and governance

•Relatively long learning curve to handle for some libraries

the Opportunities are

•Libraries are Longing for adopt next generation technologies

•Applications can be embedded in users’ mobile and smart environment

•It can facilitate open innovation for venders and libraries

the Threats are

•New Business Model has not emerged and should be mixed with resources, software and maintenance support services.

•Fierce market competition still exists.

•Open Source Software has sustainable issue.

•The risk of unfulfilled expectations brings poor word-of-mouth credibility 

I would like to propose a strategic plan for promoting FOLIO applications in China. 

We at Shanghai Library are committed to support the domestic FOLIO alliance and strive to play a key role in it.

•We should keep schedule and speed up the localization modules development for Shanghai Library, as the first successful implementation example.

•We should Increase satisfaction of early adopters and pay attention to word-of-mouth marketing.

•We should help to strengthen the governance and stewardship of the OLF and local community.

•We should release service specifications and best practices when necessary to keep awareness.

•We should implement library-centric and service-oriented modules development. 

•We should recruit library and developer alliances to build a sustainable ecology.

•We should encourage to develop more Web Apps that are compatible and interoperable with the FOLIO architecture, to form a comprehensive application environment as soon as possible.

Finally, I would like to express my sincere appreciation to those who give us a lot of help on the FOLIO development for Shanghai Library. They are CALIS, 嘉图Jiatu, ILAS, 凯勤Kelkin, 仰格Younger, 上海阿法迪Shanghai RFID, 睿计Ruiji, 蔚运Wewin, 杭州麦达Hangzhou MetaData, 以及图创软件and TCSoft,

Especially many thanks to EBSCO, a lot of friends from EBSCO lead us to the right and bright path into the future.

That’s the end of my talk.

The next speaker will be my colleague, Mr. Zhou Gang, on the FOLIO modules and migration plans by our Shanghai Library FOLIO team.




没关系,不用为没去过图书馆而感到内疚,你可能根本就找不到它。目前在中国每 47 万个人才有一个公共图书馆。如果你碰巧还有一张「读者证」的话,那么真的要恭喜你了,你属于「百里挑一」:每 130 个人当中才有一个。

全民阅读调查统计显示,我国每个识字公民年购书经费约在 30-40 元,除去教科书教辅书,其中真正购买「图书」的花费不足 10 元;被调查者自述年阅读图书一般在 4-5 本。从图书馆方面来统计,全国公共图书馆人均年购书经费 0.5 元;全国 2762 个县级以上公共图书馆收藏了 4.8 亿册图书,人均 0.39 册;服务了总人口的 0.8%,即 1062 万持卡读者;年借阅图书 2.03 亿册次(2005 年),平均每个读者每年看书 19.11 本。

而美国,每三个公民就有两个是图书馆的持卡读者,平均每人每年去图书馆7次(年接待人数 22 亿),图书流通率相当于美国人口的近五倍(14 亿册件)。在英国,每一万人就有一所图书馆。


与此同时,我们所处的时代又是一个信息泛滥的时代,人们每天一睁眼,就被「信息污染」包围,始终处于「被阅读」、「被轰炸」的状态。书店里坐卧横斜人满为患,地铁里嘻哈一族捧着 PSP、手机看小说,「起点中文网」的崛起标志着网络阅读财源滚滚,出版界为 Kindle、电纸书而疯狂,手机报正在兴起,3G 厂商也已推出多媒体阅读概念……,未被「娱乐至死」的电视媒体所终结的印刷王朝,几乎已经无法在数码网络时代继续苟延残喘。


在这个过程中,传统的图书馆正在 OUT。



前国家领导人李岚清在 1998 年 10 月 2 日视察国家图书馆时指出:「数字图书馆是图书馆的未来」。这当然不是他本人的研究成果,而是自上世纪九十年代开始,随着美国国家科学基金会(NSF)、国防部高级研究署(DARPA)和美国航空航天局(NASA)巨额资助数字图书馆研发之后,国内连续数年不断学习、消化、试验、讨论,形成的一定程度上的共识。



不过目前这种「山寨」数字图书馆概念充斥了主流媒体,从而在人们的大脑中形成了认知惯性。这应该都是「图书」这个名称惹的祸。2006 年美国 OCLC 的调查表明,社会大众对于「图书馆」的认知,是与「图书」这种形式紧紧捆绑的,这种捆绑有利有弊,「利」在于赋予了图书馆一种实在、永恒的特性,一想到图书馆,总是巍峨的大厦,无尽的书架和人类所有的知识;「弊」也显而易见,随着传统「图书」的消亡,图书馆也将无可避免地走入历史。数字时代,一切皆有可能。

其实图书馆只是通过「图书」,最终与「知识」达成捆绑。「图书」(包括期刊、报纸等传统纸媒读物)这种载体形态及其所造成的阅读习惯是印刷时代的产物,知识一旦数字化之后,内容与载体就彻底分离,编码与形式得以彼此独立,任何内容、任何媒体,还原为电脑可处理的 0 和 1,一下子就「人人平等」。对于图书馆来说,只是知识的载体形态发生了变化,知识的内容并无发生改变,图书馆收藏、保存、传播知识的职能并未发生变化。

因此,从上世纪九十年代以来,图书馆开始收藏光盘,后来是越来越多的文摘索引数据库和全文数据库,数字媒体在图书馆的采购比例越来越高。目前,国内外一些研究型图书馆采购数字资源的比重最高可达订购经费的 80%。由于检索、传递和使用的方便性,数字资源的利用率更是远远超过传统资源。


「图书」等传统载体形态,随着出版行业的彻底的「数字化」,成为数字化信息内容的一种输出形式。因为将来的绝大多数信息都是「Born Digital」的,先有数字形式,再有物质形态,而不是相反的先有传统出版,再进行数字化。而且由于传统图书的材料消耗和工艺流程所造成的高额成本(相对于数字拷贝而言),「印刷」将成为一种「贵族」消费。现在的图书必然是将来的「古籍」和艺术品,按需打印的图书也会进入奢侈品的行列。






美国伊利诺伊州大学厄本那—香槟分校的兰开斯特教授分别在 1978 年和 1982 年写过两本关于未来图书馆和图书馆员的书,预言无纸化社会将在上世纪末到来。1999 年他老人家对他的预言进行了反省,提醒人们技术的发展会带来对人的忽视。其实技术的发展总有个过程,电脑科学和网络技术一直在向更加人性化的方向发展,可视化、虚拟现实、穿戴电脑等都是近年来最前沿的技术,上世纪七十年代兴起的人工智能研究虽然是失败了,但记载了科学家的努力,Web2.0、语义万维网更是技术以人为本的证明。技术到底还是为人服务的。人的贪婪总是会对技术提出越来越高的要求,归咎于技术,只能是人的无能和无知,也是把技术异化了的表征。有人根据兰老的反省仿佛见证了兰老的愚蠢,认为他的预言的破产就是信息技术的破产,并举例说「无纸社会」实际上用纸更多了。



目前全球的网民已超过 16 亿,我国约占五分之一,更有手机上网用户1.55 亿。这个媒体迁移过程,随着我们一两代人的更替,可以自然完成。现在的网络一代,眼不离屏幕,手不离键盘,一天可以泡网十几个小时,出门也不忘带着上网手机。网络就是他们的江湖。对他们而言,任何东西,只要网上没有,就不存在。书本基本上是个负担:书包是每天的负担,买书有金钱的负担,读书更是扼杀青春的负担。偶尔街头买一张小报,或时尚杂志,一般是为了心理需要,或者可以当个坐垫。

如果我们把人类历史的坐标尺度放大,自上世纪下半叶开始的信息技术革命已经是快如闪电了。我们生活在一个一切都按照指数级发展的时代,现代人一年中所获得的信息量,是 19 世纪一个英国普通人一生所获信息量的总和,而目前每年新增的信息量,又是过去 5000 年人类信息的总和。历史上还没有哪次新技术革命,能够给人的生活,在一个人有限的一生中带来如此剧烈的变化。




1849 年,英国考古学家莱尔德发掘了迄今确知的最早的图书馆——亚述巴尼拔图书馆,发掘出近三万块泥版文书。这座公元前六世纪的图书馆却不是最有名的,只是由于泥版文书的特殊性,使其免于战火,保存至今。而大大有名的,只限于文献记载的、比它晚 400 年的古埃及亚历山大图书馆,却成了一个永恒的传奇。

以羊皮书和纸莎卷为主要收藏的亚历山大图书馆命多劫难,两次毁于战火,以至于其宏富的收藏和辉煌的历史只能散见于文献,据说其最多时收藏有 50 万卷各类手稿,是由数百位「誊写员」(当时的图书馆员)日夜不停地抄写得来的。最使这座图书馆文明的是它的收藏理念:穷尽人类的所有知识。

从这一点来讲,谷歌就是现代的亚历山大图书馆。谷歌昭告天下的使命是:「整合全球范围的信息,使人人皆可访问并从中受益」(To organize the world’s information and make it universally accessible and useful),这与 2001 年 2 月美国信息技术咨询委员会(PITAC)向布什总统提出的报告《数字图书馆:实现对人类知识的普遍访问》(Digital Libraries: Universal Access to Human Knowledge)如出一辙,甚至可以认为,谷歌就是在干未来图书馆的活。

谷歌与图书馆和出版商合作的谷歌 图书搜索计划目前已提供 700 万种数字化图书的在线服务,很快会达到 1000 万种。这批图书最早来源于五家图书馆:密西根、斯坦福、哈佛、牛津 Bodleian 四个大学图书馆和纽约公共图书馆,仅这五家图书馆的藏书就高达 1500 万种。谷歌打算投资两亿美元,在 2014 年前完成这个数字化项目,据估计最后可能远远不止。据说人类目前保存的图书总数一共也就一亿种左右,对于谷歌来说,把它们全部储存起来似乎不是什么遥不可及的事情。

随着 2008 年 10 月谷歌就其扫描的绝版书与美国出版商协会和美国作家协会达成赔偿 1.25 亿美元的和解协议,谷歌几乎就是拿到了合法的扫描人类所有图书的执照。即便该和解协议覆盖范围极其有限,这个模式也为将来处理同类纠纷提供了参考。当然没有多少人能够出得起谷歌开出的价码。谷歌建立了一个无比巨大的图书分销零售平台,凭借其所向披靡的搜索引擎和其它技术优势,将内容重新标注、索引、组合,并扩展到期刊、报告、会议录等传统学术出版产业中,甚至可以进一步与新闻、多媒体行业进行整合,而在整个内容产业中攻城略地,依靠其平台和商务模式,左右整个内容产业链。

现在谷歌的战略布局虽然初现端倪,已经很难有实质性抵抗了。由Internet  Archive、微软、雅虎等组成的开放内容联盟曾经也想在这个领域分一杯羹,但在扫描了 75 万册图书之后,微软还是放弃了该计划。当初微软的决策似乎是出于与谷歌竞争的冲动,与 Internet Archive 的合作也使其变成纯粹烧钱商务模式。其它类似的数字化项目还有中美百万册图书计划、古登堡数字图书馆计划和美利坚记忆数字图书馆项目等,从规模上和技术上不能跟谷歌图书搜索计划相比,只能算是实验性或示范性项目。

当然一家通吃的局面是很难出现的,亚马逊公司凭借其 Kindle 阅读器一鸣惊人,通过终端的标准化,打通整个产业链,打造出一个电子书零售市场,其商务模式有模仿苹果公司 iTunes / iPod 之嫌,但依然取得了巨大的成功。该领域还有索尼等公司加入战团,实力不可小觑。


图书馆在这场大战中尽可以采取坐山观虎斗的策略,谁赢谁输都没有坏处,行业整合了、科技进步了,图书馆可以更好地实现其固有的职能。要知道任何企业都是有其生命周期的,据说目前存世的最长寿的企业,是传了 40 代,已有 1400 多年历史的日本大阪寺庙建筑企业金刚组,西方最古老的企业为法国葡萄酒世家 Château de Goulaine,已超过千岁了。然而正如前文所述,图书馆至少已有 2600 多年的历史,再强大的企业,存续再久的企业,也无法跟一项公益性的事业相比,尽管可能干了与图书馆相同的工作。






图书馆发展「信息共享空间」和「学习共享空间」,甚至「Idea Shop」,正在成为公共图书馆和高校图书馆的潮流。你如果去一个社区图书馆,可能看不到成排的书架、报栏,倒是有不少沙发、茶几,以及零星的电脑和散落各处。这种「共享空间」的理念就是,综合图书馆的各种资源、设施和能力,以人为本,向读者提供所有可能的服务。每一个「共享空间」可能都是个性化的,就像每一所星巴克的布局都不一样,但他们提供的服务和体验是一样的。



图书馆的存在本来就是对于版权制度的一种调节和弥补,是平等获取知识的一种保障。从经济价值上来考量,目前图书馆购买力大约能够占到全部出版市场的 5% 左右,虽然不是举足轻重,也能算相当可观。本来这一部分投入就是应用于没有能力购买出版品的广大「长尾」读者,他们是出版市场的无效用户,这些没有市场价值的用户的阅读需求由图书馆这种制度设计来满足,公共资金(或捐助资金)购买的资源或服务实际上对于出版市场来说是额外的收入。数字出版其实也是如此,当然长尾用户的需求不一定通过图书馆来满足,但是图书馆肯定是一个拾遗补缺的、不可替代的渠道。对于如果数字资源不能通过公共图书馆进行提供,其就会丧失保障信息获取自由的职能,走向「博物馆化」就是个时间问题了。对于研究型图书馆和大学图书馆来说,一般对于开放存取具有本能的冲动,因为本身其所属机构就是学术出版的最大生产者,自己生产的知识,再通过商人的渠道,附加很多利润,再卖给自己,本身的商务模式就有许多荒谬之处,这些机构的联合所形成的购买力也是一个谈判筹码。相信进过不屑的努力,图书馆在数字资源的合理使用方面能够探索一些新的模式。


十年内可以弯折的电子纸应该能够得到商用,电子墨水技术在灰度级别和色彩深度方面已经能够超出普通人的需求,翻转速度能够应用于基本的视频播放。「电子书包」(即存储有所有教科书和教辅书的可写电脑)的普及可能会更快一些,电子书会也像 MP3 一样大行其道,这些载体在感官舒适度方面甚至会超过目前的普通纸张。所有这些变化将给新闻和出版行业全盘数字化提供巨大的市场动力,人们获取新闻和学习知识的习惯也会发生重大变化。



图书馆行业现在正处于历史上独一无二的阶段,原先的产业链已经松动、断裂,新的链条尚未建立、成型。图书馆在社会中所承担的职能虽然没有本质的变化,但角色已经发生了重大变化,图书馆不再仅仅是伫立于街角等待别人上门的一栋大楼或者几个房间,而是人们电脑桌面的一个图标,手机上的几个应用,Kindle 上的一个帐号,等等。图书馆的服务流程与人们的学习生活密切相关,同时图书馆事业作为一个整体,依旧支撑着人类所有的知识记忆。




5)范式转型已经开始,但还远没有到位(dark side:晋升、评价等)


2)产生很多新的问题,带来交叉边缘领域,甚至创造新学科 不仅仅是方法方面的革新,就像试验设备的提高带来自然科学的进步一样,会造就新的内容。 数字人文也是数据科学的一种实践领域。










这个平台现在已经诞生,它就是FOLIO,即“未来的图书馆是开放的(Future Of Library Is Open)!”


  • 周纲 和孙宇的《开创性的下一代图书馆服务平台解决方案》一文全面介绍了FOLIO的技术架构和生态环境,对其如何解决长期困扰图书馆运营的实践问题,如云模式、性价比、功能自主性、安全可控性、系统开放性和服务可靠性等进行了较为深入的探讨,重点分析了Folio技术架构和生态环境等方面的优势以及可能碰到的问题。
  • 郭利敏和张磊的《Folio专题_Folio的技术选型与运营模式研究》结合微服务技术介绍了FOLIO平台技术选型的原因,讨论了FOLIO的社区组织和商业模式之间的关系,对FOLIO在国内的落地提供了相关方案和思考。
  • 许磊和夏翠娟的《第三代图书馆服务平台的元数据管理》着重研究了FOLIO独具特色的底层数据管理架构Codex,认为Codex作为FOLIO中核心的元数据管理域,被设计成Folio的资源链接中心、规范数据中心和跨域的全媒体资源管理入口,能够通过模型中的抽象实体揭示资源间关系,其源自于BIBFRAME的抽象数据模型、最小化的元数据方案、统一的分层描述原则等考虑都远远领先于目前所有的图书馆管理系统,具有足够的灵活性支持第三代图书馆或类似机构各类实体对象的描述与组织。
  • 孙宇和周纲的《Folio专题_基于微服务架构的资源发现系统平台的构建研究》
  • 则重点研究了FOLIO中的资源发现模块,介绍了基于微服务架构的新一代资源发现系统的架构和组成,该系统架构融合了数据收割和联邦检索技术,加强了开源元数据的应用,可以真正实现馆藏所有资源的统一发现和获取,文章还展现了发现系统的本地化应用场景和服务模式。




根据CNKI的数据,国内迄今发表的近700篇以”数字人文“为主题的论文中,来自图书情报档案领域的文章大约超过60%。对比国外,Web of Science (Core Collection)收录了1590篇以“digital humanities”为topic的论文,Inforamtion Science Library Science领域的文章约为300篇,占比不到20%。这两组数据显示了国内外数字人文研究学科来源的巨大差异。






  • 贺晨芝和张磊的《图书馆数字人文众包项目实践、分析与思考》重点介绍了数字人文领域的众包应用现状,以及上海图书馆自2016年以来的实践经验。上海图书馆开发了两个独立的众包应用,即抄录平台和验证码应用,都可以以SaaS方式开放给同行使用。
  • 刘倩倩和夏翠娟的《家谱知识服务平台众包模式的设计与实现》针对上海图书馆的家谱特藏,在原来提供基本查询和关联功能的数字人文平台基础上,开发了上传家谱、在线识谱、在线修谱等功能,尝试引入众包模式不断优化系统,并与用户社区积极互动密切合作,使用户不仅作为数据的消费者,同时也作为贡献者。
  • 朱武信和夏翠娟的《命名实体识别在数字人文中的应用—基于ETL的实现》介绍了一种借助于专门词典、批量自动进行名称实体识别的方法(即ETL方法),该方法在上海图书馆的数字人文平台建设中已普遍采用,取得了良好的效果。其原理是将文本中有意义的名称(例如人物、地点、时间、事件、专有概念等)利用程序进行自动析取,经过判断之后进行数据数据化转换(通常是加上URI),并提供丰富的语义关系。
  • 张喆昱和张磊的《记忆机构开放数据建设及数据化转型模式研究》触及了两个关键性主题:数据化和开放服务,试图将上海图书馆的实践进行一般化和通用化,分析了如何通过数据化更加贴近人文学者的需求,让系统更加人性化,然后通过开放服务引入外部资源,反过来促进系统的数据化。



It’s been with great pleasure for me to come a long way across the planet, to join you in the big family, to celebrate the ongoing birth of our future platform, especially in the very special Chinese Lunar New Year. So Let me say Happy New Year to you once again! Happy the Rat Year!

The year of the Rat is a beginning of a new round of China Zodiac circle. Usually it means a brand new beginning. That’s what we hope for the FOLIO to bring us with: A New Beginning. 

This is my home town, Shanghai, a city always attracts Hollywood shooting Sci-fi movies, showing the post-mordern future society of our mankind. It is full of exciting things and opportunities. It is a perfect place to announce the final release of FOLIO I think.

This is Shanghai Library, the biggest city library in China, maybe the biggest of its kind around the world. The population of Shanghai city is 23 million. About a quarter had a reader’s card issued from my library. More than 3 million people visited my library and checked out nearly 30 million books every year. The peak circulation transaction number is 66 million in a year. But the circulation is not accomplished only by my library, we’ve got more than 250 libraries in a three-tier library system. We don’t belong to each other, but use only one integrated library system. We are a consortium.

The present Shanghai Library has opened to public in 1996. With the economic development, the budget of Shanghai Library has been increased from around 30 million USD in 1996 to 70 million USD last year. But the service capacity and key indicators have not been improved at the same time. We are not satisfied with the accessibility of our resources and the quality of our services, as well as the realization of the core values as a public library.

Our magnificent powerful Integrated Library System is Horizon, as you may know, it is from SirsiDynix. After running for more than two decades, when we set higher goals to serve more people and construct a new library building with 115,000 square meters, and expand our consortium to more than two thousand community libraries and service points, the Horizon system has no longer been able to meet our needs. At first, We decided to choose a safer way to upgrade our system to the Symphony, which is also from Sirsidynix, so as to have their services. But when the company notified us that they were no longer fulfilling the contract, returned the money and withdraw from China, I knew it was the darkest day in my career. 

Lucky enough we met FOLIO just in time.  We fell in love with FOLIO at the first sight. The open and sharing spirit of FOLIO perfectly matches the ideas of the Library. It is just what we are looking for for many years. Honestly, this step is a little bit bold, but we think it is worth to take the risk. I love the ideas which Sebastian Hammer stated in his speech “Library as a platform” at ELAG2016 conference that the FOLIO should be fully open sourced and act as an operation system for the library, and it will have an App Store for libraries to choose whatever applications they want to run.  He also pictured an amazing “by the community, with the community and for the community” vision of FOLIO.  These ideas are major breakthroughs in the library history I think. And we are very happy to see most of them have been realized in the next few years. 

We think the future shape of the library is a moving target. The service platform should be flexible enough to adapt all kinds of new technologies and requirements into the platform. From this point there is no such a platform better than FOLIO to accomplish the countless and agnostic requirements for libraries in the future.

But now we have to realize some key requirements:

  • It should be a multi tenant platform not only for Shanghai Library, but tens of branch libraries, which have their own sub branches, as a whole consortium.
  • It should support to 100 million circulation transaction in a year.
  • It should look after all kinds of activities by up to 15 million registered users.
  • It should provide collection management solutions for all kinds of culture heritage resources.
  • It should provide SaaS ecology with multiple extension modules (eg. SoLoMo services, Data Analytics, etc) by multiple local vendors.
  • It would help libraries to redefine itself in a new environment and re-engineering its workflow to meet new requirements.

We start our journey to investigate, learn and develop with FOLIO at the end of 2018. This slide lists most of the companies and institutions involved.

Now we have a team of more than 50 people, consists of librarian as PO and developers from 10 company partners. I put their names here but I won’t read them, just want to give them a recognition before you in this world wide community. So can you give them a round of applause? I am sure they can hear and be encouraged.

They are from those companies and institutions above.

By the end of 2020, we focus on the development of the Resource Access/Circulation module, the Collection Management/Inventory module and the System Management module. We also have partners working on the Acquisition/Order module and the Reading Promotion modules. 

We established the Shanghai FOLIO Alliance to joint efforts on the FOLIO implementation among Shanghai Central Library Consortium. The Alliance is under the supervision of the Shanghai Society of Libraries. It can prevent its member library to apply non FOLIO compatible module before FOLIO implementation. There are eight companies and 17 libraries as first members to join the Alliance.

The Chinese library community has been paying great attention to FOLIO from the beginning, and we also try to attract them into the FOLIO community, to popularize the concept of open source and expand our influence. 

We now have a loose national community led by CALIS (China Academic Library and Information System). We plan to upgrade to a semi-formal national alliance to advance the following community work:

  • Translating, including interfaces, documents and all kinds of materials when necessary
  • Chinese Natural Language Processing supporting, such as segmentation, sequencing…etc.
  • Local Knowledge Organization System supporting, like Chinese Library Classification, etc.
  • Developing and Maintaining the FOLIO Chinese version align with the international version, and maintaining local Knowledge Base.
  • Joining the development to contribute to new ideas such as data lake, linked data, machine learning, blockchain etc.
  • Module Compatibility Testing and Evaluating, and running a local App Store.
  • Issueing  Specifications and Best Practices, Outreaching and promotion, training, help implementing or migration, …etc.

We don’t want Chinese FOLIO application to be another information island. There would be no future if Chinese FOLIO community isolated from the international community. So we need a lot of help from you.

  • We need to know more about the whole architecture and backend technology.
  • We have to deal with local needs as a large central public library, such as massive concurrent processing, response performance, scalability, ease of use and user experiences.
  • We should provide multi-tenant environment to meet the different needs of different libraries in a large consortium.
  • We would encourage local teams to develop extensive modules to meet local needs
  • And we are going to establish Chinese application marketplace after you set up of FOLIO App Store

As the demands from China are so intense that the community decided to hire a PO who has the capability of bilingual, knowledgeable of software engineering and library business, to help us to communicate and coordinate with the international Community. After several months of recruiting, when we almost have no hope for such a panda position, Cate found one for us. The recruitment is  underway. It’s amazing.

We can’t wait for so many good ideas from FOLIO to come true, so we could make our contribution as much as possible.

As a small contribution to this conference, we made badges based on FOLIO’s logo and brought them to everyone here. So don’t forget to get one from my colleagues in the lobby (around the corner/by the door of the meeting room).

We are very appreciated for your efforts on developing FOLIO. We are very glad to see the growth of the  community. I truly understand the engagement of the community is the key for the success of FOLIO. I think It is far from enough by now. So we are very glad to be a part of it and to make contribution. There are 3000 public libraries and 1200 college libraries in China, which are eager to see a new library platform and waiting for FOLIO. We would like to invite you to hold a WolfCon or FOLIO Show in China in 2021 when the new Shanghai Library East Building has a grand opening. Let Shanghai library be your host.

Thank you very much.

2019“数据驱动的知识服务” 课程安排







第四单元:期待奇点:ABCD(即AI、Blockchain、Cloud Computing、Big Data)时代将创造一个怎样的未来?

地点:上午:三馆235教室  下午:三馆231教室



下午有一场讨论会,陈静主持,非常国际化,陈述与辩论全程高能,双语全开。主持人给到我的是这个问题:数字人文与大数据、人工智能间是怎样的关系 ?这里对匆匆辞不达意的发言做一个留存。


  1. 数字与人文的关系?digital与paper(指载体,包括甲骨简帛、纸草泥版等)的关系,而不是与print的关系(print只是古登堡印刷术1450年以来的事情,人文早已成型)。数字人文的数字表明其生于斯长于斯,荣于斯毁于斯,或不成功也将“葬”于斯。从这个角度看,数字其实是源自于人文的,而人文又源自于人类发明的文字,没有文字就没有载体,人类文明就不能积累和发展,文化就无法传承(玛雅人结绳记事也算一种载体,但也限制了其文明的发展)。大数据与人工智能是数字技术的最新阶段,还能发展多久?从多大规模上影响人文?将取决于这些技术的发展是否有一个极限。目前看来是没有的,莫尔定律从四十多年一直有效,另有一个奇点理论更说前景无限。因此发展远没有停止,我们不能低估数字技术的影响,而且还在迅速发展。人本身就是技术的产物,数字技术来源于人文,而又反馈于人文,数字人文远没有止境,不能静态来看,数字将给人文带来更多的机会。
  2. 哪些技术将影响人文?技术的潜能是很厉害的。 大数据和AI只是现时代的代表技术,大数据是数据管理技术的进展,人工智能是计算方式的变革,单独说某种技术意义不大,可以讨论所有技术,如OCR、实体识别、Dis Reading、Analytics,Visualization,Creation,其实是背后的所有技术:所有技术都会对人文带来影响、起到作用,例如很多支撑性的技术,如云计算、微服务等。我们要划定一个边界,可能是对人文研究直接有用的技术。
  3. 技术用在哪里?任何计算机问题都可以看成是模型问题,计算机技术发展至今,是对于人脑认识的模拟,而且越来越接近人认知方式。人是否能提出问题、解决问题,主要是能否借助于计算机这种人脑的延伸工具充分地认识问题。现在提出的本体技术就是把领域知识代码化、可计算化。所以说到底数字人文问题既是技术问题(无限逼近领域系统),又是认识问题,应用到具体研究过程中,它也是操作问题,评价问题,方法过程问题,信效度问题。其中核心正是我们对dh核心的认识:如何界定Methodogical Commons,DH的特点是核心清楚,边界模糊,之所以这样,还是因为我们今天对认识论模型认识的不够深刻,所有的技术都是围绕这个模型而来的,不同学科领域(包括未来新产生的人文学科)有不同的模型,从技术方法层面来看,有通用的技术工具方法和特异化的技术工具方法。当前很多社会科学研究方法都可以借鉴。
  4. 技术如何应用?DH和AI相比于硬科学和其他人文科学,都还在婴儿时期。目前的研究是研究吗?还是研究过程的一部分?当前我们普遍人文DH还是工具性的,但远远不止如此,它如果用在人类好奇心的探索,用于提高人类福祉,用于人性的延展,它就不再是工具了,工具与本体就合一了。如前所述的,人即是工具所组成。第一阶段DH可能提供的是扳手,你不需要知道扳手怎么做,你就直接可以用。而未来,你与扳手合一了,你就是扳手,你是一切,任何问题都是数字人文问题了。
  5. 当前DH有什么问题? 问题很多,Melissa提到一部分,如伦理、环保等,还有如隐私、滥用,诚信,遮蔽等。现在影响我们比较大的,是商业化问题,以及可持续性问题
  6. 最后谈一点GLAM的价值和作用。GLAM保存的是我们从哪里来的人文,而未来一定是数字的,我们期待如Edwards所说的,所有问题都是数字人文问题那一天的早日到来。