存档2005

数字图书馆先导研究计划第二期(1999~ 2002)

1998 年春,在首期 先导研究计划面临结束 之时,经过认真的总结和调研,美国政府打算从各个层面加深拓宽研究领域,于是发布了先导研究计划第二期 招标书 。

首先,主办机构从首期的三个赞助,增加到七个,增加的四个机构是美国国会图书馆 (LC, Library of Congress) 、美国国立医学图书馆( NLM , National Library of Medicine )、美国人文学科基金会( NEH , National Endowment for the Humanities )和美国联邦调查局( FBI , Federal Bureau of Investigation ),可见增加了图书馆的比重应用成分。其次,项目的持续时间和经费增加了。 DLI2 计划持续 5 年,五年中上述 6 个单位计划提供 4000 到 5000 万美元。第三,为了资助更多的项目,资助方法与第一期有所不同。到 99 年 9 月为止就有 30 个项目入围,目前(至 2000 年 10 月)已经有 36 个项目获得资助。这些项目分为两类:单独的研究项目和多学科综合项目,单独项目资助一到三年,资助上限为 20 万美元,大项目资助一到五年,资助上限为 120 万美元。第四,研究目标有所侧重,重点提出三个中心:以人为中心、以系统为中心、以技术为中心,具体研究目标是:

l 为数字图书馆界定适当的发展领域,有选择性的开展研究和实验活动;

l 使数字化资源的扩充、管理、存取更加迅速、便利,增加利用信息的深度;

l 创造新方法、新机会,使数字图书馆更好地为不同教育水平的、现有的和潜在的用户群服务;

l 推动从社会学和经济学角度对人与数字图书馆交互作用的研究。

第五,极大地扩展了数字图书馆应用领域,首期项目以研究为主,所牵头的六个高校都具有极强的计算机技术背景,而这一期涉及到许多专业领域。当然图书馆和情报方面还嫌太少,虽然有一些项目针对情报检索问题(如加州伯克力大学项目),但总的比例太小。可喜的是确有一些图书情报专家领衔进行一些项目的开发工作。第六,该期计划加强了项目管理,同时也注意促进项目间的交流和成果的转化与推广。该计划重新建立了一个网页,将所有项目分为资助项目( 36 个)、大学教育项目( 8 个,专为提供大学教育用的学科资源库建设)、国际合作项目(与英国、德国和欧盟合作的一个项目)、特别项目( 14 个)及专题研讨会等 5 个栏目,包含了最新会议及项目进展的介绍,所有阶段性研究报告都可以找到,还有大量的新闻、事件、论文、报告、相关项目和相关信息的链接。

图表参见 Edward A. Fox “Digital Libraries Initiative (DLI) Projects (1994-1999)” Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science October/November 1999 。由于涉及到三十多个具体项目,在此无法一一介绍,请参阅 DLI2 网页: http://www.dli2.nsf.gov 。


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本人收集的数字图书馆定义汇总(2000年以前)

数字图书馆定义

定 义

北图的定义

数字图书馆是没有时空限制的、便于使用的、超大规模的知识中心

国际通行的定义

数字图书馆为国家信息基础设施提供关键性信息管理技术,同时提供其主要的信息库和资源库。换句话说,数字图书馆是国家信息基础设施的核心

其它定义

数字化图书馆就是图书馆在线服务系统;

数字图书馆就是以数字形式存贮和处理信息的图书馆;

数字图书馆是指图书馆所有的工作流程都基于计算机,而且馆藏资源都实现数字化;

所谓 ” 数字图书馆 ” 就是图书馆馆藏实现数字化管理,并上网服务,供读者随时随地查阅;

数字图书馆是指通过多种技术将各种文献数字化,并将其组织起来在网上提供信息服务的信息中心或数据库;

数字化图书馆实际就是人们所说的电子图书馆、虚拟图书馆、无墙图书馆,不同的称谓只是人们从不同的角度描述数字化图书馆的特征;

其它定义

数字式图书馆为国家信息基础设施提供关键性的信息管理技术,同时提供主要的信息源和资源库。换言之,数字式图书馆是国家信息基础设施的核心;

数字图书馆一般而言是指利用当今先进的数字化技术,通过诸如 Internet 国际互联网等计算机网络,使人数众多且又处在不同地理位置的用户能够方便地利用 … ;

数字图书馆是一个数字化系统。它将分散于不同载体,不同地理位置的信息资源以数字化的形式贮存,以网络化的方式互相连接,提供及时利用,实现资源共享,其核心是数字化和网络化;其实质则是形成有序的信息空间;

数字图书馆是一个大系统,它具有分布的、大规模的和有组织数据库和知识库,用户或用户团体可对系统内的数据库和知识库进行一致性的访问,获得自己所需的最终情报;

1. http://www.ifla.org/documents/libraries/net/arl-dlib.txt

[ Berkeley Digital LibrarySunSITE]

Definition and Purposes of a Digital Library

Association of Research Libraries

October 23, 1995

Definition

There are many definitions of a “digital library.” Terms such as

“electronic library” and “virtual library” are often used synonymously. The

elements that have been identified as common to these definitions[1] are:

* The digital library is not a single entity;

* The digital library requires technology to link the resources of many

* The linkages between the many digital libraries and information

services are transparent to the end users;

* Universal access to digital libraries and information services is a

goal;

* Digital library collections are not limited to document surrogates:

they extend to digital artifacts that cannot be represented or

distributed in printed formats.

Purposes

The purposes of a North American digital library system[2] are:

* to expedite the systematic development of: the means to collect,

store, and organize information and knowledge in digital form; and of

digital library collections in North America ;

* to promote the economical and efficient delivery of information to all

sectors of North American society;

* to encourage co-operative efforts which leverage the considerable

investment in North American research resources, computing and

communications network;

* to strengthen communication and collaboration between and among the

research, business, government, and educational communities;

* to take an international leadership role in the generation and

dissemination of knowledge in areas of strategic importance to North

America ;

* to contribute to the lifelong learning opportunities of all North

Americans.

[1] See: Drabenstott, Karen M. Analytical review of the library of the

future, Washington , DC : Council Library Resources, 1994.

[2] Adapted from The CAN-LINKED Initiative, a proposal for the co-ordinated

development of a distributed national digital library system in Canada ,

prepared by a group of academic and research libraries. February, 1995.

——————-

Association of Research Libraries

October 23, 1995

Copyright ?Association of Research Libraries 1995. All rights reserved.

Document maintained at http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/ARL/definition.html by

the SunSITE Manager.

Last update 1/10/96 . SunSITE Manager: manager@sunsite.berkeley.edu

2. UCLA-NSF Workshop on Social Aspects of Digital Libraries, Final report, November, 1996 http://www-lis.gseis.ucla.edu/DL/UCLA_DL_Report.html#introduction

The core premise of the workshop was that digital libraries represent a set of significant social problems that require human and technological resources to solve. Workshop participants were charged with appraising the scope of social aspects of digital libraries, assessing what is known about these problems, and identifying the research and development issues that need to be addressed to solve them. Our first task was to define “digital libraries.” We determined that digital libraries encompass two complementary ideas:

  • Digital libraries are a set of electronic resources and associated technical capabilities for creating, searching, and using information. In this sense they are an extension and enhancement of information storage and retrieval systems that manipulate digital data in any medium (text, images, sounds; static or dynamic images) and exist in distributed networks. The content of digital libraries includes data, metadata that describe various aspects of the data (e.g., representation, creator, owner, reproduction rights), and metadata that consist of links or relationships to other data or metadata, whether internal or external to the digital library.
  • Digital libraries are constructed — collected and organized — by a community of users, and their functional capabilities support the information needs and uses of that community. They are a component of communities in which individuals and groups interact with each other, using data, information, and knowledge resources and systems. In this sense they are an extension, enhancement, and integration of a variety of information institutions as physical places where resources are selected, collected, organized, preserved, and accessed in support of a user community. These information institutions include, among others, libraries, museums, archives, and schools, but digital libraries also extend and serve other community settings, including classrooms, offices, laboratories, homes, and public spaces.

The first idea emphasizes the fact that digital libraries are computer-based systems constructed for people to use and that they are extensions of information storage and retrieval systems. The second emphasizes the belief that digital libraries should be constructed in a way that accommodates the actual tasks and activities that people engage in when they create, seek, and use information resources; in this sense they are an extension of physical environments. Both assert that digital libraries are sets of information resources collected and organized on behalf of a community.

Embedded in this definition are complex concepts with meanings that vary by context and by field of study. The terms ìinformation,î ìcommunity,î and ìlibraryî are the most problematic. Definitions of ìinformationî abound: signal processing; sensory perception; data generated by individuals and groups; objects that can be managed in retrieval systems; intellectual commodities that can be exchanged in the marketplace; etc. ìCommunityî implies a group of people with something in common, but those common features may be permanent or temporary, static or dynamic, innate or selected; biological or cultural, etc. — and any one individual can be a member of many communities at once. A ìlibraryî is often narrowly defined in technical contexts as a database application, while in other contexts a ìlibraryî is a social institution that selects, collects, organizes, preserves, conserves, and provides access to information on behalf of a community. Even the term ìdigitalî is problematic, for it reflects both ìdigital objectsî — those created in digital form, and “digitized objects” — those that are representations (e.g., scanned images, keyed text) of objects in other forms.

3. ( ref. To 2 ) http://www-lis.gseis.ucla.edu/DL/dl_handout.html

As a National Challenge Project under the NII/IITA, Digital Libraries represent a set of significant societal problems that require human and technological resources to solve.

Digital libraries represent two complementary ideas:

  • Digital libraries are a set of resources and associated technical capabilities for creating, searching, and utilizing information. In this sense they are an extension of information storage and retrieval systems that manipulate digitized data in any medium (text, images, sounds; static or dynamic images) and exist in distributed networks.
  • Digital libraries are virtual communities in which individuals and groups interact with data, information, and knowledge resources and systems. In this sense they are an extension, enhancement and integration of a variety of information institutions as physical places where resources are selected, collected, organized, preserved, and accessed in support of a user community. These information institutions include, among others:
  • Libraries
  • Museums
  • Archives
  • Schools
  • Laboratories

4. Gladney, Henry M. et. al. Digital Library: Gross Structure and Requirements (Report from a Workshop.) IBM Research Report RJ 9840, May 1994. http://www.ifla.org/documents/libraries/net/rj9840.pdf

A digital library is a machine readable representation of materials which might

be found in a university library together with organizing information intended

to help users find specific information. A digital library service is an assemblage

of digital computing, storage, and communications machinery together with the

software needed to reproduce, emulate, and extend the services provided by

conventional libraries based on paper and other material means of collecting,

storing, cataloging, finding, and disseminating informatio n. A full service digital

library must accomplish all essential services of traditional libraries and also

exploit digital storage, searching, and communication.

Public, private, professional, school, commercial, and other kinds of library

emphasize different services, different kinds of information, and different service

styles. While any digital library instance may thus offer only partial services, the

technology suite from which library instances are assembled must permit

assembly of a full service library. In addition, this suite must shield the user

who wishes to draw on multiple libraries from inter-library differences which are

irrelevant to him.

What distinguishes a conventional library from a heap of things to read is

organization provided by someone other than the authors of the collected

materials. For a small, private collection this could be shelf organization; for a

large collection it is typically a descriptive catalog 2 which is distinct from the

collection, with at least one catalog record associated with each item held.

Not every database is a library, but every library is a database 3 . What distin-guishes

a library from an arbitrary database are certain data integrity and

security rules that constitute an implicit contract between custodians and users.

5. The NSF/ARPA/NASA Digital Library Initiative, FY 1994 Na93 states:

“Information sources accessed via the Internet are ingredients of a digital library. Today, the

network connects some information sources that are a mixture of publicly available (with

or without charge) information and private information shared by collaborators. They

include reference volumes, books, journals, newspapers, national phone directories, sound

and voice recordings, images, video clips, scientific data (raw data streams from instruments

and processed information), and private information services such as stock market reports

and private newsletters. These information sources, when connected electronically through

a network, represent important components of an emerging, universally accessible, digital

library.”

Digital Library Initiative, FY 1994, A joint initiative of the National Science Foundation, the Advanced Research Projects Agency, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, U.S. Government document NSF 93-141, (1993).

6. In a prior DL workshop report Fo93,p.65 , we find:

“A digital library is a distributed technology environment which dramatically reduces barriers

to the creation, dissemination, manipulation, storage, integration, and reuse of information

by individuals and groups.”

http://ei.cs.vt.edu/~dlib/def.htm E.A. Fox (ed.), Source Book on Digital Libraries, TR93-35, Dept. of Computer Science , Virginia Tech, (1993);

“Digital libraries are complex data/information/knowlege (hereafter information) systems that

help: satisfy the information needs of users (societies), provide information services (scenarios),

organize information in usable ways (structures), manage the location of information (spaces), and

communicate information with users and their agents (streams).”

(Edward A. Fox, July 1999, according to 5S Framework)

l

“Digital library work occurs in the context of a complex design space shaped by four dimensions:

community, technology, services and content”

(Gary Marchionini and Edward A. Fox, “Progress toward digital libraries: augmentation through

integration”, pp. 219-225, guest editors' introduction to “Progress Toward Digital Libraries”, eds.

Gary Marchionini and Edward A. Fox, Special Issue, Information Processing & Management,

35(3), May 1999.)

l

“The field of digital libraries deals with augmenting human civilization through the application of

digital technology to the information problems addressed by institutions such as libraries, archives,

museums, schools, publishers and other information agencies. Work on digital libraries focuses on

integrating services and better serving human needs, through holistic treatment irrespective of

interface, location, time, language and system. Although substantial collections may be created

solely for the use of individuals, we consider sharable resources one of the defining characteristics

of libraries. Libraries connect people and information; digital libraries amplify and augment these

connections.”

(Gary Marchionini and Edward A. Fox, “Progress toward digital libraries: augmentation through

integration”, Information Processing & Management, 35(3):219-225, May 1999.)

l

For a thoughtful discussion of definitions, approaches, and community perspectives on “digital

libraries” see “What are digital libraries? Competing visions” by Christine L. Borgman, pp.

227-244, in “Progress Toward Digital Libraries”, eds. Gary Marchionini and Edward A. Fox,

Special Issue, Information Processing & Management, 35(3), May 1999.

l

“The generic name for federated structures that provide humans both intellectual and physical

access to the huge and growing worldwide networks of information encoded in multimedia digital

formats.”

(The University of Michigan Digital Library: This Is Not Your Father's Library, Birmingham ,

1994)

l

“Systems providing a community of users with coherent access to a large, organized repository of

information and knowledge.”

(Lynch, 1995)

l

“Digital libraries are a set of electronic resources and associated technical capabilities for creating,

searching, and using information. In this sense they are an extension and enhancement of

information storage and retrieval systems that manipulate digital data in any medium (text, images, sounds; static or dynamic images) and exist in distributed networks. The content of digital libraries includes data, metadata that describe various aspects of the data (e.g., representation, creator, owner, reproduction rights), and metadata that consist of links or relationships to other data or metadata, whether internal or external to the digital library.

(UCLA-NSF Social Aspects of Digital Libraries Workshop)

Digital libraries are constructed — collected and organized — by a community of users, and their

functional capabilities support the information needs and uses of that community. They are a

component of communities in which individuals and groups interact with each other, using data,

information, and knowledge resources and systems.In this sense they are an extension,

enhancement, and integration of a variety of information institutions as physical places where

resources are selected, collected, organized, preserved, and accessed in support of a user

community. These information institutions include, among others, libraries, museums, archives,

and schools, but digital libraries also extend and serve other community settings, including

classrooms, offices, laboratories, homes, and public spaces.” (UCLA-NSF Social Aspects of

Digital Libraries Workshop)

l

“systems providing a community of users with coherent access to a large, organized repository of

information and knowledge. This organization of information is characterized by the absence of

prior detailed knowledge of the uses of the information. The ability of the user to access,

reorganize, and utilize this repository is enriched by the capabilities of digital technology”

(adapted from Interoperability, Scaling, and the Digital Libraries Research Agenda)

l

“Digital library is a concept that has different meanings in different communities. To the

engineering and computer science community, digital library is a metaphor for the new kinds of

distributed data base services that manage unstructured multimedia data. To the political and

business communities, the term represents a new marketplace for the world's information resources

and services. To futurist communities, digital libraries represent the manifestation of Wells' World

Brain. The perspective taken here is rooted in an information science tradition.”

(Research and Development in Digital Libraries by Gary Marchionini)

l

“A digital library is a distributed technology environment which dramatically reduces barriers to

the creation, dissemination, manipulation, storage, integration, and reuse of information by

individuals and groups.”

(Edward A. Fox, editor, Source Book on Digital Libraries, pg. 65)

l

“A digital library is a machine readable representation of materials which might be found in a

university library together with organizing information intended to help users find specific

information. A digital library service is an assemblage of digital computing, storage, and

communicate machinery together with the software needed to reprise, emulate, and extend the

services provided by conventional libraries based on paper and other material means of collecting,

storing, cataloging, finding, and disseminating information.”

(Edward A. Fox, editor, Source Book on Digital Libraries, pg. 65)

l

“an organized data base of digital information objects in varying formats maintained to provide

unmediated ease of access to a user community, with these further characteristics:

– an overall access tool (e.g. a catalog) provides search and retrieval capability over the entire data

base;

– organized technical procedures exist through which the library management adds objects to the

data base and removes them according to a coherent and accessible collections policy.”

(Peter Graham, Rutgers University Libraries)

l

“A library that has been extended and enhanced by the application of digital technology. Important

aspects of the digital library that may be extended and enhanced include :

– Collections of the library

– Organization and management of the collections

– Access of the library items and the processing

of the information contained in the items

– Communication of information about the items “

(Smith, 1995)

7. http://www.nlc-bnc.ca/pubs/nl-news/1998/feb98e/3002-06e.htm

“The literature on digital libraries contains numerous, often dissimilar, definitions of 慸 igital library'. These definitions range from the digital library as a computer data repository or a collection of digital objects, to much broader definitions that consider the digital library to be an extension of the traditional library: that is, a library that carries out the traditional library functions of collection, preservation and access provision, while integrating, to an increasing degree, digital media and remotely accessible digital library services. For librarians, this last definition is most realistic….Digital libraries are libraries , with the same purposes, functions and goals as traditional libraries.” 1

加拿大国家图书馆的数字图书馆理解

8. http://www.dl.ulis.ac.jp/ISDL97/proceedings/collier.html Towards a general theory of the Digital Library

9. http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/staff/accessibility/bobby-report-042099/7b.html Digital Library Definition for DLI2

10. Griffin , Stephen M. (Program Manager of the Digital Libraries Initiative, NSF) interview: “Taking the Initiative for Digital Libraries, ” The Electronic Library, vol. 16, no. 1, Feb. 1998: 24-27.

…digital libraries provide for collection development, organisation, access, annotation and preservation, and deal both with information in digital form as well as digital management of information residing on physical media. My definition places additional emphasis on the need to consider users and usage as part of any analytical framework used to study digital libraries.

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数字图书馆的概念成型期(1994~1999)

虽然本人认同较为宽泛的定义,但我们仍然需要清晰地了解数字图书馆概念的产生和演变的历史,我们应该知道别人所谈论的”数字图书馆”是什么概念,与我们是否有什么不同,这样我们在交流时才可能更好地沟通和彼此理解。

站在今天的角度,可以认为过去的二十多年一直在为数字图书馆的突现进行技术积累,清除技术障碍。直至 90 年代早期,一系列的技术进步彻底破除了建立数字图书馆所面临的最后障碍。虽然技术永远是不充分的,但经济廉价的设备和急剧成长的网络规模最终产生了量变到质变的飞跃:数字图书馆最终成为一个明确的研究开发领域,而获得大量的研究经费,得到高度重视。

1993 年 11 月至 1994 年 2 月间,美国连续有四次与”数字图书馆”有关的专题会议召开 [1] ,”数字图书馆”这一名词已经不是计算机界或图书馆界的专业术语,而成了许多专业会议的口头语。”数字图书馆”这一名词被广泛使用用,此时人们对于规范数字图书馆这一概念内涵提出了强烈要求。这一概念最早来自于人们对于计算机信息处理能力的憧憬,来自于技术所提供的可能性,也来自于构建国家信息基础设施的要求。从文献上看,自 1993 年至 1998 年,美国进行过数次大规模的研讨,包括后面将提到的美国信息基础结构技术与应用工作组 IITA( 全称 U.S. Government&apos;s Information Infrastructure Technology and Applications) 的专题研讨,虽然并没有形成完全统一的认识,但无疑对统一认识、交流成果起到了非常积极的作用。

首当其冲的依然是具有美国政府背景的研究机构及非赢利性公司等。 1986 年成立的美国”国家先导研究公司”( Corperation of National Research Initiative ,简称 CNRI )是一个非赢利性研究机构,其总裁兼首席执行长( CEO )曾经是美国国防部高级研究计划署信息处理部主任、 Internet 前身 ARPANET 的主要设计者、被《今日美国》称作因特网之父的罗伯特 · 卡恩( Robert E. Kahn ,见照片)。 CNRI 公司主要从美国政府获得经费,承担许多国家信息基础设施建设所必须的基础性研究,可以说是设计美国国家信息高速公路的主要机构,后来负责维护大多数因特网协议、标准及草案等等。”数字图书馆的基础结构”是卡恩 1995 年发表的数字图书馆奠基之作 [2] ,从某种意义上说卡恩也是数字图书馆之父。

该报告确立的数字图书馆基础结构获得了随后大多数研究计划的一致支持,被称为 Kahn-Wilensky 结构(下文简称 k-w 结构),曾有 William Arms 等写过为数不多的几篇论文对这个主题进行进一步深化和讨论 [3][4] ,但基本都沿用了该报告提出的基本概念和体系结构。本书将在第 章中较为详细地介绍这一体系结构。该报告提出的数字图书馆是一个在广域网中面向对象的分布式的数字资源组织体系。提出这些想法能够从本质上改进目前因特网在资源组织上的与生俱来的弱点。该报告提出一整套新的概念体系,例如”数字对象” (digital objects) 、”调度系统” (handle system) 、”元数据与键元数据”、”统一资源命名域 (URN:Universal Resources Namespace) 及其认证”、”资源库访问协议” (repository access protocol) 等,影响了以后的所有数字图书馆技术研发项目,包括美国数字图书馆先导研究计划( DLI1 )中的许多项目、美国国会图书馆的国家数字图书馆计划以及各大公司对于数字图书馆的理解。可能由于该报告提出的设想过于”基础”,实际上是对整个因特网结构的优化,在因特网的应用如日中天之时,不可能得到普遍推广,到目前为止我们还只能看到一些试验性应用开发项目。

该公司并不满足于提出一些基本概念和基础结构,而是与美国政府资助的许多数字图书馆项目密切合作,不断推出一些试验原型系统或”测试平台” (Testbed) ,并利用其下属著名的”数字图书馆杂志”( http://www.dlib.org )发表成果,展开交流讨论。

《数字图书馆杂志》创刊于 1995 年 7 月,全称是 d-lib magazine: a magazine of the digital library forum ,至今已发表了大量的高水平的数字图书馆研究论文,成为名副其实的论坛。该杂志很好地利用了电子出版的所有优势,同时借鉴了传统期刊的特点(例如准时、定期出版,对过刊的完整保留等),不仅是学术研究工具,同时其本身也成为数字图书馆许多新观念新理念的实践者。这是一本数字图书馆领域名副其实的核心期刊,具有难以替代的地位,并且做到了”免费”与”高质量”这一对矛盾的和谐统一。

1994~1995 年间美国关于数字图书馆方面的研讨会( workshop )不断,美国政府感到有必要统一大家对这个问题的看法,于是美国信息基础结构技术与应用工作组( U.S. Government&apos;s Information Infrastructure Technology and Applications :简称 IITA )组织了一次声势浩大的专题研究,试图弄清楚数字图书馆的研究范围、内容和应采取的步骤。 IITA 是美国航空航天局 NASA 设立的一项”高性能计算与通信计划( High Performance Computing and Communications Program ,简称 HPCC )”中的一个项目组 ,是美国国家信息基础结构 NII 的最高技术委员会。 会议邀请了多达 60 位数字图书馆及相关领域的活跃分子,向他们询问了三个基本问题:

a. 什么是数字图书馆?它与一般的信息库或因特网有什么区别?将会有多少数字图书馆?它们相互之间的关系怎样?用户看到的数字图书馆是怎样的?

b. 数字图书馆需要怎样的基础结构?由哪些要素组成?与 NII 所需的更宽泛的基础结构有何不同?基础结构与标准的关系如何?谁会使用这些基础结构?这些基础结构怎样处理与知识产权管理有关的出版商关心的问题?

c. 怎样评价数字图书馆?如何知道三四年后现在的研究项目成功地为用户开发了有效的数字图书馆服务?

为了使会议避免无休止的争论、更好地达成一致看法,会议还根据专家的不同背景分了五个小组,它们是:出版界、商业、图书馆界、因特网领域和多媒体领域,分别进行讨论和总结 [5] 。会议就数字图书馆研究急需解决的问题达成了初步一致的意见,并基本确认了 k-w 结构作为数字图书馆基础结构所确立的基本框架。结论分为 5 个方面:互操作性、数字对象及对象库的描述、收藏的管理与组织、用户界面与人机交互以及经济、社会和法律问题,为以后的研究工作确立了框架,理清了思路,划定了边界,对以后美国国内数字图书馆的研究发展产生了巨大的影响。

[1] 1994 年 IBM Research Report RJ 9840, May 1994.Submitted to IEEE Computer Society Press, Proc. Workshop on On-line Access to Digital Libraries ,见本书网页: http://www.libnet.sh.cn/introdl/ 。

[2] Robert Kahn and Robert Wilensky, “A Framework for Distributed Digital Object Services”, May 1995. (http://WWW.CNRI.Reston.VA.US/home/cstr/arch/k-w.html)

[3] William Y. Arms “Key Concepts in the Architecture of the Digital Library” D-Lib Magazine, July 1995

[4] William Y. Arms, Christophe Blanchi, Edward A. Overly “An Architecture for Information in Digital Libraries” ( http://www.dlib.org/dlib/february97/cnri/02arms1.html )

[5] 见 IITA 有关资料。

William Y. Arms, Christophe Blanchi, Edward A. Overly “An Architecture for Information in Digital Libraries” ( http://www.dlib.org/dlib/february97/cnri/02arms1.html )

[5] 见 IITA 有关资料。

[5] 见 IITA 有关资料。

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数字图书馆初创期(1993年以前)

Vannevar Bush 在大脑中发明的信息机” Memex ” [1] 一直被当作数字图书馆的概念起源, 1945 年的计算机甚至连存储设备都没有, Bush 设想的 Memex 系统以缩微作为信息的存储体,计算机负责信息索引和查询,实际上是一个计算机辅助检索系统。这个想法在 50 年代至 60 年代就被马萨诸塞技术学院实现了,该学院的 Intrex 项目将一个收藏两万篇科学文献的缩微库与一个计算机目录检索系统相连,实现了自动检索。

第一次真正应用计算机存储和处理图书馆信息的尝试可追溯到 20 世纪 60 年代末,首先是从建立法律和科学文献的全文索引开始的,美国俄亥俄法律自动研究系统( Ohio Bar Automated Research System ,是后来著名的 LEXIS 系统的前身)能够提供法律状态的联机检索,空军建立的法律信息电子系统( LITE )索引了当时美国所有的法律法规和司法解释,提供检索服务。 70 年代 IBM 基于文本存储与检索技术开发了 STAIRS 系统,安装在许多大型机中,提供当时许多图书馆用于流通管理等。虽然当时面临一系列的技术障碍,例如昂贵的计算机、居高不下的存储成本、简陋的用户界面以及网络的缺乏,仍然产生了上述可圈可点的应用,当然图书馆界最值得一提的事件是美国国会图书馆成功开发了 MARC 格式,这是一种机读目录格式。美国图书馆联机中心( OCLC )多年来利用 MARC 为全球的图书馆进行服务,节省了可观的费用。

同时早期产生了一些信息服务,如联合编目、法律信息系统和美国国家医学图书馆的 Medline 联机数据库系统等,当时采用的是主机 – 终端模式,少量的信息装载在一台大型计算机上,用户坐在专门的终端前,通过一种低速的通信联接(例如电话线或专用网络)与中央计算机交换信息。这些系统要求用户训练有素,以便通过简陋的字符型人机界面,自动搜索,获取本地无法得到的信息。这种模式一直沿用到八十年代中期,这时大型国际联机检索系统,例如 DIALOG 、 ORBIT 、 STN 等已获得普遍应用,通过它们, Medline 、化学文摘( CA )、科学文摘( INSPEC )、美国政府研究报告( NTIS )、世界专利文摘( WPI )等非常重要的科学数据库得到广泛传播,虽然通信费用昂贵,仍然成为各国有一定规模的图书馆和信息机构所必备的信息源。

真正形成数字图书馆概念核心的技术应用发生在 80 年代中期,随着计算机信息存储成本的大幅下跌和信息处理能力的提高,特别是个人电脑的普及, 1985 年产生了 CD-ROM 这种电子出版的主要载体,接着多媒体出现,一时间联机( Online )和光盘成了两种互相竞争的技术,万维网的出现和迅速普及打断了这种争论,多媒体数字信息,而不仅仅是二次文献或事实型数据库全面通过网络提供成为可能,半个世纪的数字图书馆的畅想从云端落到了地面。

在这里我们把万维网出现之前的一些通过网络提供服务的全文信息系统看作是早期数字图书馆应用,它们中有许多延续至今,且已经改头换面,但仍然是数字图书馆的先驱,它们为数字图书馆概念框架的形成做出了许多贡献,参与这些系统设计和开发的许多专家都成了后来数字图书馆领域的活跃分子。这些项目有卡内基 • 梅隆大学的 Mercury 计划、康奈尔大学的 CORE 计划、 Elsevier Science Publishing 的 Tulip 计划、以及著名的美国国会图书馆”美国记忆”计划等等。

美国弗吉尼亚技术大学的 Edward A. Fox 在《 Digital Library Source Book 》中详细介绍了”数字图书馆”在美国产生和兴起初期的情况,介绍了当时召开的一些著名的研讨会,阐述了美国政府基于战略上的考虑,积极促进其研究部门,如美国科学基金会等,在催生数字图书馆中所起的重要作用。


[1] 见 http://www.theatlantic.com/unbound/flashbacks/computer/bushf.htm

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数字图书馆发展的背景

数字图书馆产生和发展的社会历史背景离不开近 30 年来知识经济或信息经济成为目前全球经济的最重要的火车头的转型过程,以及人们对知识和信息的经济学意义的逐步认识。。

从世界范围看,信息产业形成于 60 年代,成长于 70 至 80 年代,快速发展于 90 年代。然而早在 1912 年, 德国经济学家熊彼特就认识到创新才是社会发展的一个根本原因,而创新的关键就是知识和信息的生产、传播、使用。 1957 年美国经济学家索罗研究了 1909 年至 1949 年美国经济构成情况,发现非农业部门劳动生产率翻了一番,技术进步占了 87.5% ,劳动和资本的贡献只占 12.5% 。 1962 年美国经济学家马克卢普发表了《美国的知识生产和分配》,详细地分析和论证了知识和信息在经济发展中的作用,首次提出知识产业的概念。 1967 年,波拉特测定出美国从业人员中有 50% 被人雇用在信息产业中,产值占当时美国国内生产总值 GNP 的 45% ,这项测算产生了深远影响,并导致了对各国产业经济的重新划分和深入研究。欧美各工业国先后开始对本国信息产业作出波拉特式测定,我国也在 80 年代末测算信息产业从业人数占总就业人数的 8.8% ,产值为当时 GNP 的 15% 。值得一提的是, 1996 年诺贝尔经济学奖授予了对信息经济学研究有开创作用的詹姆斯·莫里斯 (James Mirrlees) 教授和威廉姆·维克瑞 (William Vickery) 教授,以表彰他们的贡献。计算机和网络技术的发展彻底改变了人类交流知识和信息的方式,网络消灭了时空差别,而数字图书馆消除了信息占有的差别(技术上),信息上的平等带来交易上的平等,从而具有了经济学上的意义。

人与人之间的知识和信息的交流本来都是意识形态的东西,然而由于技术的发展和人类无止境的需求,它不折不扣地成了经济的主导产业,反过来带动了参与知识信息产生与交流的整个生命过程的各行各业,使这些行业甚至得以提高到国家发展战略的高度,纳入”国家级挑战”等基本国策来重视和扶植。数字图书馆即是其中一员。

从一般意义上说,工业革命极大地拓展了人类的体力,信息革命正在扩展人类的脑力,仅仅在跨越二十世纪的几十年的岁月中,人们对资源的认识经历了从”原子”向”比特”的进步,信息资源已上升为与能源平等的战略资源,而信息之所以成为资源,主要体现在信息的掌控和利用能力。数字图书馆的产生原因和存在价值在于它能够更好地整理、保存和传送信息。

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数字图书馆的定义

对于数字图书馆这样一个正处在不断变化发展的新生事物,追求一个科学完整而又公认的定义是不可能的,( 参见定义汇总 ) ,几乎每个研究项目都有一个自己的界定,有多少著作就有多少定义。本文无意于评判这些定义,但从历史角度作一简要回顾,有利于形成本书对于”数字图书馆”的界定,从而有助于阐明本书的立论基础。

数字图书馆的概念定义首先是从技术的角度作出的,而且一开始就有异于人们对于图书馆的传统理解。以下是几个典型定义:

“数字图书馆是一个分布式的信息环境,其相关技术使得创建、传播、处理、存储、整合和利用信息的困难大幅降低。” [2] 这是一个早期定义。

“数字图书馆是一系列的信息资源以及相关的、将这些资源组织起来的技术手段,如创建、检索、利用信息的技术。涵盖了现有分布式网络中所有数字媒体类型(文本、图像、声音、动态图像等)的存储和检索系统。” [3] 这是美国国家科学基金会资助的一项有关数字图书馆的”国家级挑战”项目报告中的定义。

早期研究引用较多的一个定义来自美国研究图书馆协会( ARL ): “数字图书馆不是一个单独的实体,需要有关技术提供到其它资源的链接,该链接对用户应该是透明的,目标是做到任意检索( universal access ),数字馆藏应超越传统馆藏而不能仅成为其替代品” [4]

美国著名的数字图书馆研究计划”数字图书馆先导研究计划”第一期将数字图书馆的研究范围限定为”分布式知识工作环境( Distributed Knowledge Work Environments )”,在 1997 年对第一期项目进行总结并对第二期项目进行规划时,专门就该项目对于数字图书馆的定义问题举办了研讨会,研讨会认为上述认识不尽准确,数字图书馆不仅仅是数字馆藏及管理工具的集合,而应包括信息、数据和知识在整个创建、发布、利用、存储等生命周期内的所有活动 [5]

综合上述各种定义,我们对于数字图书馆给出一个限定外延的描述性定义: “数字图书馆是在分布式计算机网络环境中信息资源的组织形式,提供国家信息基础设施( NII )的关键性信息管理技术,并提供其主要的信息资源库。” 这个定义试图抓住数字图书馆的最本质特征–分布式网络环境中的数字化对象的集合,以及最广义的适用范围– NII 的资源库。而对于数字图书馆内涵,我们认同最宽泛的解释:任何利用数字技术和计算机网络获取、存储、存取、发布信息的图书馆或信息机构都可以称为数字图书馆。一个初生婴儿的发展有无限的可能性,我们为什么要作茧自缚呢?

不论信息以何种形式存在,图书馆的任务始终只有一个:对于知识信息的收集和整理,以便更好地传播和利用。传统图书馆收集、存储并重新组织信息,使读者能方便地查到其所需要的信息,传统图书馆还跟踪读者使用情况,以保护信息提供者的权益。数字图书馆抽象地看,与传统图书馆几乎具有相同的工作流程,不同的技术手段为同样的工作环节服务。数字图书馆需要收集或创建数字化馆藏,这集成了各种数字化技术,如高分辨率数字扫描和色彩矫正、光学字符识别、信息压缩、格式转换等。数字图书馆利用建立在各种关系数据库或面向对象数据库系统上的有关数字对象的组织、管理、查询技术能够帮助用户便捷地查找信息,并将信息按照用户期望的格式发送。在安全保护、访问许可和记帐服务等完善的权限管理之下,数字图书馆内经授权的信息能够利用 INTERNET 的发布技术,实现全球信息共享。

数字图书馆有三个基本要素 :数字化资源、网络化存取和分布式管理。

数字化资源 :大量的数字化资源是数字图书馆的 ” 物质 ” 基础。数字图书馆中的数字化资源应该能够直接提供读者所需的信息,而不只是二次文献(仅使用户获得如何得到文献的线索),然而也应该包含大量的查找信息和帮助信息,因为二次文献也可能是某些读者的最终需求,所以书目数据,索引文摘等应该是数字图书馆的有机组成部分,同时由于数字化把各种不同的载体统一于 0 和 1 两个简单的数字,书籍、期刊、录音录像带、缩微品、光盘或者古籍、善本、手稿、碑帖、字画、 X 光片等等,在数字图书馆中都消失了原本的物理形态,多媒体自然也成了数字图书馆的特征之一。

网络化存取 :高速的数字通信网络是数字图书馆的存在基础。数字图书馆依附于网络而存在,其对内的业务组织和对外的服务都是以网络为工具或载体,使得它得益于网络也受制于网络。只有利用网络所提供的一切便利和优势,才能最大限度地发挥数字图书馆的作用和优势。

分布式管理 :分布式管理是数字图书馆发展的高级阶段,它意味着全球数字图书馆遵循统一的访问协议之后,数字图书馆可以实现”联邦检索”,全球数字图书馆将像现在的 INTERNET 联接网站一样,把全球的数字化资源连为一体,组成一个巨大的图书馆,使组织和共享人类所有知识成为一种可能。目前关于数字图书馆的最关键的技术研究和开发重点就在于此,这也是数字图书馆之所以聚集众多的人力财力、受到各国特别是发达国家高度重视的最主要原因。


[2] http://ei.cs.vt.edu/~dlib/def.htm E.A. Fox (ed.), Source Book on Digital Libraries, TR93-35, Dept. of Computer Science, Virginia Tech, (1993);

[3] UCLA-NSF Workshop on Social Aspects of Digital Libraries, Final report, November, 1996 http://www-lis.gseis.ucla.edu/DL/UCLA_DL_Report.html 。 NII/IITA 的国家级挑战计划。

[4] http://www.ifla.org/documents/libraries/net/arl-dlib.txt

[5] http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/DLI12/defineDL.html

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数字图书馆的缘起

回顾历史,很多成就巨大的事业都源自于零星的思想火种。数字图书馆的概念萌芽可以追溯到半个世纪以前,这时第一台电子管的”电子计算机”刚刚诞生,工程技术人员整天为获得一丁点”数字化信息”的计算结果,不断地更换象灯泡一样电子管器件 ( 如图:世界第一台电子计算机 ENIAC) 。富有远见的专家学者一直随着计算机信息处理技术的发展,不断对人类知识的载体–图书馆的未来形态进行着构想,在一系列新事物,如因特网 (1984) 、 SGML(1985) 、 CD-ROM(1985) 、多媒体 (1986) 、万维网 www 、国家信息基础设施 NII 等产生之时,”数字图书馆”也迅速成为一个时代的特征之一。

“数字图书馆”这一名词的出现与美国政府提出兴建国家信息基础设施( NII )的提出和因特网的迅速普及处在同一时期,显示了它们之间不可分割的联系。最早进行”数字图书馆( digital library )”探讨的文献始见于 1992 年 [1] , [2] ,这一年七月美国国家科学基金会 NSF 主持了一个”电子图书馆研讨班 ( Workshop on Electronic Libraries) ” [3] ,会上 John Garrett 在介绍美国国家先导研究公司 CNRI 的研究项目时提到数字图书馆计划,同年十二月同样的研讨班就更名为”数字图书馆研讨班( Workshop on Digital Libraries )”,美国著名数字图书馆研究专家 Michael Lesk 作了主题发言,名为《数字图书馆:它是什么,为什么是这样的》 [4] ,此后以”数字图书馆”冠名的各类会议、论文层出不穷,一发而不可收。

数字图书馆的基础根植于整个 80 年代对联机情报检索孜孜不倦的追求和探索 [5] ,以及全文本、多媒体信息处理技术的成熟,其发端可以归因于因特网出现后美国政府对信息基础设施的研究和投入。图书馆员和信息专家对早期的数字图书馆项目有独特的影响,但最主要的贡献却是来自计算机技术前沿。到今天,图书馆、信息机构、出版发行公司等大量地走上了数字图书馆的历史舞台,但背后的导演仍然是最新的信息技术,图书馆及其它信息机构的社会角色在技术带动的根本性变革的驱动下正在发生着深刻的变化。我们研究数字图书馆的根本目的,就是要把握这一变化,适应这一变化带来的挑战。

[1] Garrett, John R. and Alen, Joseph S., Toward a Copyright Management System for Digital Libraries, Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. March 1992 (一说本文发表于 1991 年)

[2] 参见 Fox, Edward, ed. Digital Library Source Book. 1993. URL: http://fox.cs.vt.edu/DLSB.html

[3] CNRI project: John Garrett, Corporation for National Research Initiatives. Workshop on Electronic Libraries, July 20-21, 1992 NSF

[4] Michael Lesk ” The Digital Library: What is it? Why should it be here? ” Workshop on Digital Libraries Xerox Palo Alto Research Center December 9-10, 1992

[5] D. Woelk and W. Kim, Multimedia Information Management in an Object-Oriented Database System , Proc.13th VLDB Conference, 319-329, Brighton (1987). 文中实际上已经提出数字图书馆概念。

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去除IT应用的浮华

曾有一段时间常常写一些简短的文字,就 IT 在图书情报届的应用发一些小小的感慨或议论,有些内容似乎至今仍有意义。文章总觉得自己的好,有了博客这种形式,就想陆续整理出来给更多的人看到,也当作一种广而告之吧。

去除IT应用的浮华

写于 2001 年 6 月

从专业刊物看我国图书情报界的计算机应用水平实在是不低,某些领域几乎是处于同一水平线上,甚至美国刚发芽,中国已开花。随手举几个例子:网上虚拟参考工作,美国国会图书馆和OCLC20012月刚开完会,国内已有动作;网上资源导航、元数据应用、知识管理、数字资源整合、电子期刊利用等问题,是近期国际专业会议上的热门话题,也开始看到国内专业杂志上有所讨论。这应该说是一个好现象。

然而,我们身处实际工作中的图书馆员们似乎并没有感到这些新东西扑面而来,更没有享受到新技术带来的好处,读者就更无法奢望了。20015月底在清华大学召开的NIT2001数 字图书馆国际会议可以明显看出在应用项目上与国外的差距。就学科建设而言这种现象依然是前些年照搬其他学科概念的翻版,国内除了少数一流的图书馆正在扎扎 实实进行图书馆工作”转型”之外,大多还处在一种看热闹的状态,有些图书情报机构甚至面临大好机遇而不自知,或无所事事,或肆意挥霍,坐失良机。

图书情报机构能否借助IT技术而融入信息产业,图谋凤凰涅磐呢?这需要一些有战略思考、懂IT技术的馆长所长们,进行一些实实在在的开发、研究和应用。