关于未来数字出版生态的九个猜想

1、所有“书”都在云上,也就基本上完美地解决盗版问题。就像目前已经没有了游戏盗版一样。图书馆的“拥有”可以通过印制代表图书的等价“纸币”来体现,提供给财政部门销账。
2、机构和个人藏书可以下载,可以打印,可以制作礼品书,可以无缝跨越所有终端,满足包括赵老师等非常需要的“收藏”、“炫耀”在内的各类需求。
3、什么人看什么书,你看的书决定你和你的朋友圈子,决定了你喜欢听什么音乐、喝什么咖啡、买什么品牌的衣服,甚至交什么朋友…图书馆比你更懂你。
4、书不仅是用来看的,也是用来听的,甚至是用来玩的;不仅是用来消遣的、学习的,也是用来社交的。
5、写书的人可以通过各种方式获得报酬,除了传统的广告、按字收费之外,还可以以服务收费,如物物或劳务、交换、打赏、月票、折扣券等形式。
6、平台也将获益,特别是具有创新服务模式的平台。前提是电信平台提供商(中移动、电信、联通)退出增值服务市场,否则不可能。
7、独立出版大行其道(那时候已经不知道什么是“独立”出版了),版权公司如鱼得水,图书馆等中介机构可分杯羹。
8、“群众智慧”成为出版的“把门人”,而编辑则成为一门越来越独特的“艺术”,人人会弄几下,但专业的受雇于高端出版。
9、专业出版(STM)领域是OA(开放存取)的天下,同行评议的社会化、质量控制的自动化与评价体系的“先组后控”(根据所遵守规范的级别定义成果的级别)成为常态。

 

关联数据能给企业带来什么?

作为一个语义技术(现在是关联数据)的布道者,总是被问及“能够带来什么”和“为什么”的问题。一个简单的、有巨大价值的,甚至是革命性的技术,却不知什么原因让很多人觉得难以理解,实在是难以理解。

今天又回答了一位网友的提问,顺便把回答贴上来,也期望有更多的人看到。星星之火,点燃更多的人。

关联数据能够对一个企业或机构带来怎样的好处呢?其实现在的企业、组织机构与图书情报单位差不多,IT用得较早较多的,都已经有了很多系统了:业务管理系统、办公自动化系统、人事系统、财务系统、销售系统、客户管理系统、库存系统、物流系统……,很多单位有了这些系统却找不到数据,每次用到数据(例如人员数据)都要重新填表,效率和一致性都成问题。

如何使这些系统协同、特别是数据得到重用,是个很大的问题。以关联数据为代表的语义技术正是在数据整合乃至业务整合方面,能够发挥巨大作用,确保已有的大量产品(对象)数据或其它数据方便有效地跨系统得到使用。用一个时髦名词,就是“基于语义的系统(数据)集成”。

很多情况下企业都是通过XML消息或其它B2B标准实现跨系统信息通信,但是当一个企业内拥有几十个系统,管理着不同的业务过程,涉及上万个实体(产品、零件、藏品…)时,正确地描述每一个产品的复杂属性和取值,取得数据的一致性不是一件容易的事情。一棵再强大的XML DOM树也无法对付高度复杂的多维链接关系。答案只有一个:用图式数据(graph)。

关联数据的价值就在此时显现出来。它向数据消费方提供一个单一的、可信的、易用的实体对象数据源。关联数据自身就是开放的API,对最终用户的好处就是:发布在网站上的信息、数据表、选单、指南、合作伙伴的信息、链接信息等,能够保持高度的一致性,特别是能够解决更新时的一致性问题。

怎么做?

根据LD的发布原则,首先确立每一个独立存在的实体对象(例如产品、供应商),赋予他们唯一的HTTP URI作为标识。在系统后台可能要支持这些对象数据原有的管理系统,例如他们是通过XML RPC接口过来,还是CSV格式,还是RDBMS的,都要转成RDF是肯定的。

RDF的一个很好的特性是合并数据非常容易,能够从不同的来源很容易地进行合并,而此时如果采用大数据解决方案,例如采用图形NoSQL数据库,则更体现了灵活性。

为这类RDF图形数据库建立查询“端点(endpoint)”是很容易的,然后我们就可以通过SPARQL标准进行查询。

这里有个工具Dydra,它是一个数据库作为一种服务(Database as a Service)的云服务。可以作为小应用“试水”,边用边学。你只需要上载你的RDF数据即可。目前此类工具已经很多了,而且很强大,例如最新的Apache Jena和OpenRDF Sesame项目成果,或者“关联数据平台(LDP)”如Graphity。它们已经能够支持非常“傻瓜”地建立关联数据系统,支持很快地建立API,存取不同来源的数据,甚至能够支持非常复杂的提问。这种基于语义的整合具有过去系统所不具有的深度(智能)查询能力,如果发展得足够快,应该能应用于下一代“图书馆服务平台LSP”中。

当一个查询命中一个产品标识(以HTTP URI形式)时,这个URL是可“解引(deferencable)”的,意味着可以支持“内容协商机制(negotiation)”,按照不同的请求提供不同的数据,浏览器(人工请求)就提供HTML,机器请求就提供XML、JSON或Turtle格式的RDF数据。Graphity采用Jave和XSLT2.0,通用性很强。

如果该企业或组织机构的数据具有一定的通用性,它愿意作为一种“规范数据”发布到公网上,在一定的开放协议下提供公共服务(如果是商业服务可以收费),这些数据的模型(本体)和描述规范(元数据规范)还能构成领域标准,将使企业或组织机构的价值得到更大的提升。

本市公共图书馆服务体系的定位与问题

公共图书馆服务体系是一个城市公共文化服务体系的重要组成部分。从我们的角度来看,有两个定位,

第一个定位:它是公共文化服务的最重要和最稳定的基础设施。它具有专业性和职业性。它的基础性反映在人口覆盖率、地理覆盖上和服务性质上。在国外称得上国际化大都市的中心城市,公共图书馆服务的人口覆盖率大约在60%-80%,地理覆盖有一个概念,叫15分钟生活圈。服务性质是普遍均等的保障性基本服务,一年365天,面向360行,同时它既是一个场所,又可以提供基于网络的不打烊的服务。体现了一种政府向人民群众提供的文化保障。

第二个定位:它是“开展全民阅读活动”的主力军。十八大报告第一次把“开展全民阅读活动”写入了党的工作报告中。图书馆生来就是提供阅读服务的,它的四大职能(保存、教育、信息、休闲)也主要是通过阅读来实现。它的阅读,包括老百姓的大众化阅读,以及为决策者和研究人员提供的专业性阅读服务。它通过阅读,也为社会的和谐稳定做出了贡献。很多人在其中寻找精神寄托,包括失业的,以及特殊人群。

据调查,目前国民阅读率大约是每年4.5本,而本市图书馆的持卡读者每年大约借阅图书近30本,凸显了图书馆的作用。

公共图书馆目前存在三方面的问题:

1、服务能级问题

上海市中心图书馆260多家分馆联网,全市有图书馆员2000多名,年流通量3700万册次,服务能力接近极限。但距离全市人民的要求还有距离。目前的办卡率8%,近200万读者,虽然全国第一,但还有提升空间。现在我们致力于数字阅读,希望实现转型发展。对上图而言最大的瓶颈在上图目前设施的老化和IT系统的陈旧,造成业务指标难有突破,阅读率难以提升。

2、可持续性问题

从长远看,体制制约和人才制约是两个绕不过去的坎。体制:目前仅仅从业务上的共建共享是不可持续的,行政体制上的总分馆制是行业的发展趋势,应可以逐步试点。

3、多元化服务问题。

作为研究型图书馆,必须提出更高的目标和要求,满足全市社会、经济、文化各方面各层次的情报需求,目前还只是满足共性的和大众化阅读的需求,研究型图书馆的功能还需要拓展。

 

2013数字世界6大趋势

一加拿大网络营销公司Capulet Communications预测今年(2013年)数字世界值得关注的六大趋势:

1、每个人拥有多个“屏幕”成为一种普遍现象(手机屏、平板屏、手提电脑屏、桌面机、电视…);

2、我们比任何时候都喜欢用图像交谈(可视电话?未必吧);
3、人们比任何时候都更加自恋(Self Documentation),如自拍上网,微博,签到,地理位置分享…;
4、更多的“一键式策展”(push-button curation,如一键推送、转发等,通常相对于Long Form而言),特别是在移动应用中;
5、我们在网络应用上的停留时间越来越趋于短暂(如:Facebook的平均停留时间可达401秒,而g+只有区区30秒——记忆可能不准确,欢迎指正),网上的内容稍纵即逝;
6、计算机知道你的秘密越来越多,多得你难以想象。广告商利用你的行为来定位你。如果你不付费购买产品,你将会成为他们的产品。

再谈数字阅读的未来

去年9月24日,美国图书馆协会当选主席Maureen Sullivan曾公开致信美国出版界,就出版行业在电子书方面拒绝向图书馆供货、或以完全不同于印刷图书的模式高价向图书馆售卖电子书、或附加很多其它限制的做法,进行了苛责。

我曾在这里贴出这封信,并进行了简单的点评。
对这封公开信,美国出版商协会第二天就进行了解释和反驳,显示了这个行业已经无法依靠自身的力量得到转型和发展。传统出版已经是个腐朽的夕阳工业,它必须死掉,才能在其机体上长出新的生命。
对于出版商的不识时务,图书馆完全可以采取两种策略:
1、打不过它,就成为它的一部分。这个策略,图书馆自己做出版商也可以;或者积极支持、乃至投身于OA,特别在STM领域推进OA。这些措施都能痛击出版商,或者在他们的背上压上重重稻草。
2、 引入更多形式的内容,而不局限于所谓的“电子书”。例如多媒体图书、原生数字图书、流式图书等。网上大量的免费内容和UGC绝对可以也应该成为图书馆服务 的资源,一位孟加拉小孩开发了一个软件能把博客on-the-fly地转成epub和mobi格式,供电子书阅读器下载。其实从长远看全媒体出版必然改变 人们的“阅读”方式,目前脱胎于印本图书的“电子书”必然会退缩到一个很狭小的利基市场,目前的出版界如果不能发展成媒体公司,或者被其它媒体公司甚至互 联网公司吞并,他们根本是微不足道的。当前出版商的合并潮,正说明了他们已经有生存危机,不得不抱团取暖。

数字图书馆先导研究计划第二期(1999~ 2002)

1998 年春,在首期 先导研究计划面临结束 之时,经过认真的总结和调研,美国政府打算从各个层面加深拓宽研究领域,于是发布了先导研究计划第二期 招标书 。

首先,主办机构从首期的三个赞助,增加到七个,增加的四个机构是美国国会图书馆 (LC, Library of Congress) 、美国国立医学图书馆( NLM , National Library of Medicine )、美国人文学科基金会( NEH , National Endowment for the Humanities )和美国联邦调查局( FBI , Federal Bureau of Investigation ),可见增加了图书馆的比重应用成分。其次,项目的持续时间和经费增加了。 DLI2 计划持续 5 年,五年中上述 6 个单位计划提供 4000 到 5000 万美元。第三,为了资助更多的项目,资助方法与第一期有所不同。到 99 年 9 月为止就有 30 个项目入围,目前(至 2000 年 10 月)已经有 36 个项目获得资助。这些项目分为两类:单独的研究项目和多学科综合项目,单独项目资助一到三年,资助上限为 20 万美元,大项目资助一到五年,资助上限为 120 万美元。第四,研究目标有所侧重,重点提出三个中心:以人为中心、以系统为中心、以技术为中心,具体研究目标是:

l 为数字图书馆界定适当的发展领域,有选择性的开展研究和实验活动;

l 使数字化资源的扩充、管理、存取更加迅速、便利,增加利用信息的深度;

l 创造新方法、新机会,使数字图书馆更好地为不同教育水平的、现有的和潜在的用户群服务;

l 推动从社会学和经济学角度对人与数字图书馆交互作用的研究。

第五,极大地扩展了数字图书馆应用领域,首期项目以研究为主,所牵头的六个高校都具有极强的计算机技术背景,而这一期涉及到许多专业领域。当然图书馆和情报方面还嫌太少,虽然有一些项目针对情报检索问题(如加州伯克力大学项目),但总的比例太小。可喜的是确有一些图书情报专家领衔进行一些项目的开发工作。第六,该期计划加强了项目管理,同时也注意促进项目间的交流和成果的转化与推广。该计划重新建立了一个网页,将所有项目分为资助项目( 36 个)、大学教育项目( 8 个,专为提供大学教育用的学科资源库建设)、国际合作项目(与英国、德国和欧盟合作的一个项目)、特别项目( 14 个)及专题研讨会等 5 个栏目,包含了最新会议及项目进展的介绍,所有阶段性研究报告都可以找到,还有大量的新闻、事件、论文、报告、相关项目和相关信息的链接。

图表参见 Edward A. Fox “Digital Libraries Initiative (DLI) Projects (1994-1999)” Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science October/November 1999 。由于涉及到三十多个具体项目,在此无法一一介绍,请参阅 DLI2 网页: http://www.dli2.nsf.gov 。


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本人收集的数字图书馆定义汇总(2000年以前)

数字图书馆定义

定 义

北图的定义

数字图书馆是没有时空限制的、便于使用的、超大规模的知识中心

国际通行的定义

数字图书馆为国家信息基础设施提供关键性信息管理技术,同时提供其主要的信息库和资源库。换句话说,数字图书馆是国家信息基础设施的核心

其它定义

数字化图书馆就是图书馆在线服务系统;

数字图书馆就是以数字形式存贮和处理信息的图书馆;

数字图书馆是指图书馆所有的工作流程都基于计算机,而且馆藏资源都实现数字化;

所谓 ” 数字图书馆 ” 就是图书馆馆藏实现数字化管理,并上网服务,供读者随时随地查阅;

数字图书馆是指通过多种技术将各种文献数字化,并将其组织起来在网上提供信息服务的信息中心或数据库;

数字化图书馆实际就是人们所说的电子图书馆、虚拟图书馆、无墙图书馆,不同的称谓只是人们从不同的角度描述数字化图书馆的特征;

其它定义

数字式图书馆为国家信息基础设施提供关键性的信息管理技术,同时提供主要的信息源和资源库。换言之,数字式图书馆是国家信息基础设施的核心;

数字图书馆一般而言是指利用当今先进的数字化技术,通过诸如 Internet 国际互联网等计算机网络,使人数众多且又处在不同地理位置的用户能够方便地利用 … ;

数字图书馆是一个数字化系统。它将分散于不同载体,不同地理位置的信息资源以数字化的形式贮存,以网络化的方式互相连接,提供及时利用,实现资源共享,其核心是数字化和网络化;其实质则是形成有序的信息空间;

数字图书馆是一个大系统,它具有分布的、大规模的和有组织数据库和知识库,用户或用户团体可对系统内的数据库和知识库进行一致性的访问,获得自己所需的最终情报;

1. http://www.ifla.org/documents/libraries/net/arl-dlib.txt

[ Berkeley Digital LibrarySunSITE]

Definition and Purposes of a Digital Library

Association of Research Libraries

October 23, 1995

Definition

There are many definitions of a “digital library.” Terms such as

“electronic library” and “virtual library” are often used synonymously. The

elements that have been identified as common to these definitions[1] are:

* The digital library is not a single entity;

* The digital library requires technology to link the resources of many

* The linkages between the many digital libraries and information

services are transparent to the end users;

* Universal access to digital libraries and information services is a

goal;

* Digital library collections are not limited to document surrogates:

they extend to digital artifacts that cannot be represented or

distributed in printed formats.

Purposes

The purposes of a North American digital library system[2] are:

* to expedite the systematic development of: the means to collect,

store, and organize information and knowledge in digital form; and of

digital library collections in North America ;

* to promote the economical and efficient delivery of information to all

sectors of North American society;

* to encourage co-operative efforts which leverage the considerable

investment in North American research resources, computing and

communications network;

* to strengthen communication and collaboration between and among the

research, business, government, and educational communities;

* to take an international leadership role in the generation and

dissemination of knowledge in areas of strategic importance to North

America ;

* to contribute to the lifelong learning opportunities of all North

Americans.

[1] See: Drabenstott, Karen M. Analytical review of the library of the

future, Washington , DC : Council Library Resources, 1994.

[2] Adapted from The CAN-LINKED Initiative, a proposal for the co-ordinated

development of a distributed national digital library system in Canada ,

prepared by a group of academic and research libraries. February, 1995.

——————-

Association of Research Libraries

October 23, 1995

Copyright ?Association of Research Libraries 1995. All rights reserved.

Document maintained at http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/ARL/definition.html by

the SunSITE Manager.

Last update 1/10/96 . SunSITE Manager: manager@sunsite.berkeley.edu

2. UCLA-NSF Workshop on Social Aspects of Digital Libraries, Final report, November, 1996 http://www-lis.gseis.ucla.edu/DL/UCLA_DL_Report.html#introduction

The core premise of the workshop was that digital libraries represent a set of significant social problems that require human and technological resources to solve. Workshop participants were charged with appraising the scope of social aspects of digital libraries, assessing what is known about these problems, and identifying the research and development issues that need to be addressed to solve them. Our first task was to define “digital libraries.” We determined that digital libraries encompass two complementary ideas:

  • Digital libraries are a set of electronic resources and associated technical capabilities for creating, searching, and using information. In this sense they are an extension and enhancement of information storage and retrieval systems that manipulate digital data in any medium (text, images, sounds; static or dynamic images) and exist in distributed networks. The content of digital libraries includes data, metadata that describe various aspects of the data (e.g., representation, creator, owner, reproduction rights), and metadata that consist of links or relationships to other data or metadata, whether internal or external to the digital library.
  • Digital libraries are constructed — collected and organized — by a community of users, and their functional capabilities support the information needs and uses of that community. They are a component of communities in which individuals and groups interact with each other, using data, information, and knowledge resources and systems. In this sense they are an extension, enhancement, and integration of a variety of information institutions as physical places where resources are selected, collected, organized, preserved, and accessed in support of a user community. These information institutions include, among others, libraries, museums, archives, and schools, but digital libraries also extend and serve other community settings, including classrooms, offices, laboratories, homes, and public spaces.

The first idea emphasizes the fact that digital libraries are computer-based systems constructed for people to use and that they are extensions of information storage and retrieval systems. The second emphasizes the belief that digital libraries should be constructed in a way that accommodates the actual tasks and activities that people engage in when they create, seek, and use information resources; in this sense they are an extension of physical environments. Both assert that digital libraries are sets of information resources collected and organized on behalf of a community.

Embedded in this definition are complex concepts with meanings that vary by context and by field of study. The terms ìinformation,î ìcommunity,î and ìlibraryî are the most problematic. Definitions of ìinformationî abound: signal processing; sensory perception; data generated by individuals and groups; objects that can be managed in retrieval systems; intellectual commodities that can be exchanged in the marketplace; etc. ìCommunityî implies a group of people with something in common, but those common features may be permanent or temporary, static or dynamic, innate or selected; biological or cultural, etc. — and any one individual can be a member of many communities at once. A ìlibraryî is often narrowly defined in technical contexts as a database application, while in other contexts a ìlibraryî is a social institution that selects, collects, organizes, preserves, conserves, and provides access to information on behalf of a community. Even the term ìdigitalî is problematic, for it reflects both ìdigital objectsî — those created in digital form, and “digitized objects” — those that are representations (e.g., scanned images, keyed text) of objects in other forms.

3. ( ref. To 2 ) http://www-lis.gseis.ucla.edu/DL/dl_handout.html

As a National Challenge Project under the NII/IITA, Digital Libraries represent a set of significant societal problems that require human and technological resources to solve.

Digital libraries represent two complementary ideas:

  • Digital libraries are a set of resources and associated technical capabilities for creating, searching, and utilizing information. In this sense they are an extension of information storage and retrieval systems that manipulate digitized data in any medium (text, images, sounds; static or dynamic images) and exist in distributed networks.
  • Digital libraries are virtual communities in which individuals and groups interact with data, information, and knowledge resources and systems. In this sense they are an extension, enhancement and integration of a variety of information institutions as physical places where resources are selected, collected, organized, preserved, and accessed in support of a user community. These information institutions include, among others:
  • Libraries
  • Museums
  • Archives
  • Schools
  • Laboratories

4. Gladney, Henry M. et. al. Digital Library: Gross Structure and Requirements (Report from a Workshop.) IBM Research Report RJ 9840, May 1994. http://www.ifla.org/documents/libraries/net/rj9840.pdf

A digital library is a machine readable representation of materials which might

be found in a university library together with organizing information intended

to help users find specific information. A digital library service is an assemblage

of digital computing, storage, and communications machinery together with the

software needed to reproduce, emulate, and extend the services provided by

conventional libraries based on paper and other material means of collecting,

storing, cataloging, finding, and disseminating informatio n. A full service digital

library must accomplish all essential services of traditional libraries and also

exploit digital storage, searching, and communication.

Public, private, professional, school, commercial, and other kinds of library

emphasize different services, different kinds of information, and different service

styles. While any digital library instance may thus offer only partial services, the

technology suite from which library instances are assembled must permit

assembly of a full service library. In addition, this suite must shield the user

who wishes to draw on multiple libraries from inter-library differences which are

irrelevant to him.

What distinguishes a conventional library from a heap of things to read is

organization provided by someone other than the authors of the collected

materials. For a small, private collection this could be shelf organization; for a

large collection it is typically a descriptive catalog 2 which is distinct from the

collection, with at least one catalog record associated with each item held.

Not every database is a library, but every library is a database 3 . What distin-guishes

a library from an arbitrary database are certain data integrity and

security rules that constitute an implicit contract between custodians and users.

5. The NSF/ARPA/NASA Digital Library Initiative, FY 1994 Na93 states:

“Information sources accessed via the Internet are ingredients of a digital library. Today, the

network connects some information sources that are a mixture of publicly available (with

or without charge) information and private information shared by collaborators. They

include reference volumes, books, journals, newspapers, national phone directories, sound

and voice recordings, images, video clips, scientific data (raw data streams from instruments

and processed information), and private information services such as stock market reports

and private newsletters. These information sources, when connected electronically through

a network, represent important components of an emerging, universally accessible, digital

library.”

Digital Library Initiative, FY 1994, A joint initiative of the National Science Foundation, the Advanced Research Projects Agency, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, U.S. Government document NSF 93-141, (1993).

6. In a prior DL workshop report Fo93,p.65 , we find:

“A digital library is a distributed technology environment which dramatically reduces barriers

to the creation, dissemination, manipulation, storage, integration, and reuse of information

by individuals and groups.”

http://ei.cs.vt.edu/~dlib/def.htm E.A. Fox (ed.), Source Book on Digital Libraries, TR93-35, Dept. of Computer Science , Virginia Tech, (1993);

“Digital libraries are complex data/information/knowlege (hereafter information) systems that

help: satisfy the information needs of users (societies), provide information services (scenarios),

organize information in usable ways (structures), manage the location of information (spaces), and

communicate information with users and their agents (streams).”

(Edward A. Fox, July 1999, according to 5S Framework)

l

“Digital library work occurs in the context of a complex design space shaped by four dimensions:

community, technology, services and content”

(Gary Marchionini and Edward A. Fox, “Progress toward digital libraries: augmentation through

integration”, pp. 219-225, guest editors' introduction to “Progress Toward Digital Libraries”, eds.

Gary Marchionini and Edward A. Fox, Special Issue, Information Processing & Management,

35(3), May 1999.)

l

“The field of digital libraries deals with augmenting human civilization through the application of

digital technology to the information problems addressed by institutions such as libraries, archives,

museums, schools, publishers and other information agencies. Work on digital libraries focuses on

integrating services and better serving human needs, through holistic treatment irrespective of

interface, location, time, language and system. Although substantial collections may be created

solely for the use of individuals, we consider sharable resources one of the defining characteristics

of libraries. Libraries connect people and information; digital libraries amplify and augment these

connections.”

(Gary Marchionini and Edward A. Fox, “Progress toward digital libraries: augmentation through

integration”, Information Processing & Management, 35(3):219-225, May 1999.)

l

For a thoughtful discussion of definitions, approaches, and community perspectives on “digital

libraries” see “What are digital libraries? Competing visions” by Christine L. Borgman, pp.

227-244, in “Progress Toward Digital Libraries”, eds. Gary Marchionini and Edward A. Fox,

Special Issue, Information Processing & Management, 35(3), May 1999.

l

“The generic name for federated structures that provide humans both intellectual and physical

access to the huge and growing worldwide networks of information encoded in multimedia digital

formats.”

(The University of Michigan Digital Library: This Is Not Your Father's Library, Birmingham ,

1994)

l

“Systems providing a community of users with coherent access to a large, organized repository of

information and knowledge.”

(Lynch, 1995)

l

“Digital libraries are a set of electronic resources and associated technical capabilities for creating,

searching, and using information. In this sense they are an extension and enhancement of

information storage and retrieval systems that manipulate digital data in any medium (text, images, sounds; static or dynamic images) and exist in distributed networks. The content of digital libraries includes data, metadata that describe various aspects of the data (e.g., representation, creator, owner, reproduction rights), and metadata that consist of links or relationships to other data or metadata, whether internal or external to the digital library.

(UCLA-NSF Social Aspects of Digital Libraries Workshop)

Digital libraries are constructed — collected and organized — by a community of users, and their

functional capabilities support the information needs and uses of that community. They are a

component of communities in which individuals and groups interact with each other, using data,

information, and knowledge resources and systems.In this sense they are an extension,

enhancement, and integration of a variety of information institutions as physical places where

resources are selected, collected, organized, preserved, and accessed in support of a user

community. These information institutions include, among others, libraries, museums, archives,

and schools, but digital libraries also extend and serve other community settings, including

classrooms, offices, laboratories, homes, and public spaces.” (UCLA-NSF Social Aspects of

Digital Libraries Workshop)

l

“systems providing a community of users with coherent access to a large, organized repository of

information and knowledge. This organization of information is characterized by the absence of

prior detailed knowledge of the uses of the information. The ability of the user to access,

reorganize, and utilize this repository is enriched by the capabilities of digital technology”

(adapted from Interoperability, Scaling, and the Digital Libraries Research Agenda)

l

“Digital library is a concept that has different meanings in different communities. To the

engineering and computer science community, digital library is a metaphor for the new kinds of

distributed data base services that manage unstructured multimedia data. To the political and

business communities, the term represents a new marketplace for the world's information resources

and services. To futurist communities, digital libraries represent the manifestation of Wells' World

Brain. The perspective taken here is rooted in an information science tradition.”

(Research and Development in Digital Libraries by Gary Marchionini)

l

“A digital library is a distributed technology environment which dramatically reduces barriers to

the creation, dissemination, manipulation, storage, integration, and reuse of information by

individuals and groups.”

(Edward A. Fox, editor, Source Book on Digital Libraries, pg. 65)

l

“A digital library is a machine readable representation of materials which might be found in a

university library together with organizing information intended to help users find specific

information. A digital library service is an assemblage of digital computing, storage, and

communicate machinery together with the software needed to reprise, emulate, and extend the

services provided by conventional libraries based on paper and other material means of collecting,

storing, cataloging, finding, and disseminating information.”

(Edward A. Fox, editor, Source Book on Digital Libraries, pg. 65)

l

“an organized data base of digital information objects in varying formats maintained to provide

unmediated ease of access to a user community, with these further characteristics:

– an overall access tool (e.g. a catalog) provides search and retrieval capability over the entire data

base;

– organized technical procedures exist through which the library management adds objects to the

data base and removes them according to a coherent and accessible collections policy.”

(Peter Graham, Rutgers University Libraries)

l

“A library that has been extended and enhanced by the application of digital technology. Important

aspects of the digital library that may be extended and enhanced include :

– Collections of the library

– Organization and management of the collections

– Access of the library items and the processing

of the information contained in the items

– Communication of information about the items “

(Smith, 1995)

7. http://www.nlc-bnc.ca/pubs/nl-news/1998/feb98e/3002-06e.htm

“The literature on digital libraries contains numerous, often dissimilar, definitions of 慸 igital library'. These definitions range from the digital library as a computer data repository or a collection of digital objects, to much broader definitions that consider the digital library to be an extension of the traditional library: that is, a library that carries out the traditional library functions of collection, preservation and access provision, while integrating, to an increasing degree, digital media and remotely accessible digital library services. For librarians, this last definition is most realistic….Digital libraries are libraries , with the same purposes, functions and goals as traditional libraries.” 1

加拿大国家图书馆的数字图书馆理解

8. http://www.dl.ulis.ac.jp/ISDL97/proceedings/collier.html Towards a general theory of the Digital Library

9. http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/staff/accessibility/bobby-report-042099/7b.html Digital Library Definition for DLI2

10. Griffin , Stephen M. (Program Manager of the Digital Libraries Initiative, NSF) interview: “Taking the Initiative for Digital Libraries, ” The Electronic Library, vol. 16, no. 1, Feb. 1998: 24-27.

…digital libraries provide for collection development, organisation, access, annotation and preservation, and deal both with information in digital form as well as digital management of information residing on physical media. My definition places additional emphasis on the need to consider users and usage as part of any analytical framework used to study digital libraries.

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