本人收集的数字图书馆定义汇总(2000年以前)

数字图书馆定义

定 义

北图的定义

数字图书馆是没有时空限制的、便于使用的、超大规模的知识中心

国际通行的定义

数字图书馆为国家信息基础设施提供关键性信息管理技术,同时提供其主要的信息库和资源库。换句话说,数字图书馆是国家信息基础设施的核心

其它定义

数字化图书馆就是图书馆在线服务系统;

数字图书馆就是以数字形式存贮和处理信息的图书馆;

数字图书馆是指图书馆所有的工作流程都基于计算机,而且馆藏资源都实现数字化;

所谓 ” 数字图书馆 ” 就是图书馆馆藏实现数字化管理,并上网服务,供读者随时随地查阅;

数字图书馆是指通过多种技术将各种文献数字化,并将其组织起来在网上提供信息服务的信息中心或数据库;

数字化图书馆实际就是人们所说的电子图书馆、虚拟图书馆、无墙图书馆,不同的称谓只是人们从不同的角度描述数字化图书馆的特征;

其它定义

数字式图书馆为国家信息基础设施提供关键性的信息管理技术,同时提供主要的信息源和资源库。换言之,数字式图书馆是国家信息基础设施的核心;

数字图书馆一般而言是指利用当今先进的数字化技术,通过诸如 Internet 国际互联网等计算机网络,使人数众多且又处在不同地理位置的用户能够方便地利用 … ;

数字图书馆是一个数字化系统。它将分散于不同载体,不同地理位置的信息资源以数字化的形式贮存,以网络化的方式互相连接,提供及时利用,实现资源共享,其核心是数字化和网络化;其实质则是形成有序的信息空间;

数字图书馆是一个大系统,它具有分布的、大规模的和有组织数据库和知识库,用户或用户团体可对系统内的数据库和知识库进行一致性的访问,获得自己所需的最终情报;

1. http://www.ifla.org/documents/libraries/net/arl-dlib.txt

[ Berkeley Digital LibrarySunSITE]

Definition and Purposes of a Digital Library

Association of Research Libraries

October 23, 1995

Definition

There are many definitions of a “digital library.” Terms such as

“electronic library” and “virtual library” are often used synonymously. The

elements that have been identified as common to these definitions[1] are:

* The digital library is not a single entity;

* The digital library requires technology to link the resources of many

* The linkages between the many digital libraries and information

services are transparent to the end users;

* Universal access to digital libraries and information services is a

goal;

* Digital library collections are not limited to document surrogates:

they extend to digital artifacts that cannot be represented or

distributed in printed formats.

Purposes

The purposes of a North American digital library system[2] are:

* to expedite the systematic development of: the means to collect,

store, and organize information and knowledge in digital form; and of

digital library collections in North America ;

* to promote the economical and efficient delivery of information to all

sectors of North American society;

* to encourage co-operative efforts which leverage the considerable

investment in North American research resources, computing and

communications network;

* to strengthen communication and collaboration between and among the

research, business, government, and educational communities;

* to take an international leadership role in the generation and

dissemination of knowledge in areas of strategic importance to North

America ;

* to contribute to the lifelong learning opportunities of all North

Americans.

[1] See: Drabenstott, Karen M. Analytical review of the library of the

future, Washington , DC : Council Library Resources, 1994.

[2] Adapted from The CAN-LINKED Initiative, a proposal for the co-ordinated

development of a distributed national digital library system in Canada ,

prepared by a group of academic and research libraries. February, 1995.

——————-

Association of Research Libraries

October 23, 1995

Copyright ?Association of Research Libraries 1995. All rights reserved.

Document maintained at http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/ARL/definition.html by

the SunSITE Manager.

Last update 1/10/96 . SunSITE Manager: manager@sunsite.berkeley.edu

2. UCLA-NSF Workshop on Social Aspects of Digital Libraries, Final report, November, 1996 http://www-lis.gseis.ucla.edu/DL/UCLA_DL_Report.html#introduction

The core premise of the workshop was that digital libraries represent a set of significant social problems that require human and technological resources to solve. Workshop participants were charged with appraising the scope of social aspects of digital libraries, assessing what is known about these problems, and identifying the research and development issues that need to be addressed to solve them. Our first task was to define “digital libraries.” We determined that digital libraries encompass two complementary ideas:

  • Digital libraries are a set of electronic resources and associated technical capabilities for creating, searching, and using information. In this sense they are an extension and enhancement of information storage and retrieval systems that manipulate digital data in any medium (text, images, sounds; static or dynamic images) and exist in distributed networks. The content of digital libraries includes data, metadata that describe various aspects of the data (e.g., representation, creator, owner, reproduction rights), and metadata that consist of links or relationships to other data or metadata, whether internal or external to the digital library.
  • Digital libraries are constructed — collected and organized — by a community of users, and their functional capabilities support the information needs and uses of that community. They are a component of communities in which individuals and groups interact with each other, using data, information, and knowledge resources and systems. In this sense they are an extension, enhancement, and integration of a variety of information institutions as physical places where resources are selected, collected, organized, preserved, and accessed in support of a user community. These information institutions include, among others, libraries, museums, archives, and schools, but digital libraries also extend and serve other community settings, including classrooms, offices, laboratories, homes, and public spaces.

The first idea emphasizes the fact that digital libraries are computer-based systems constructed for people to use and that they are extensions of information storage and retrieval systems. The second emphasizes the belief that digital libraries should be constructed in a way that accommodates the actual tasks and activities that people engage in when they create, seek, and use information resources; in this sense they are an extension of physical environments. Both assert that digital libraries are sets of information resources collected and organized on behalf of a community.

Embedded in this definition are complex concepts with meanings that vary by context and by field of study. The terms ìinformation,î ìcommunity,î and ìlibraryî are the most problematic. Definitions of ìinformationî abound: signal processing; sensory perception; data generated by individuals and groups; objects that can be managed in retrieval systems; intellectual commodities that can be exchanged in the marketplace; etc. ìCommunityî implies a group of people with something in common, but those common features may be permanent or temporary, static or dynamic, innate or selected; biological or cultural, etc. — and any one individual can be a member of many communities at once. A ìlibraryî is often narrowly defined in technical contexts as a database application, while in other contexts a ìlibraryî is a social institution that selects, collects, organizes, preserves, conserves, and provides access to information on behalf of a community. Even the term ìdigitalî is problematic, for it reflects both ìdigital objectsî — those created in digital form, and “digitized objects” — those that are representations (e.g., scanned images, keyed text) of objects in other forms.

3. ( ref. To 2 ) http://www-lis.gseis.ucla.edu/DL/dl_handout.html

As a National Challenge Project under the NII/IITA, Digital Libraries represent a set of significant societal problems that require human and technological resources to solve.

Digital libraries represent two complementary ideas:

  • Digital libraries are a set of resources and associated technical capabilities for creating, searching, and utilizing information. In this sense they are an extension of information storage and retrieval systems that manipulate digitized data in any medium (text, images, sounds; static or dynamic images) and exist in distributed networks.
  • Digital libraries are virtual communities in which individuals and groups interact with data, information, and knowledge resources and systems. In this sense they are an extension, enhancement and integration of a variety of information institutions as physical places where resources are selected, collected, organized, preserved, and accessed in support of a user community. These information institutions include, among others:
  • Libraries
  • Museums
  • Archives
  • Schools
  • Laboratories

4. Gladney, Henry M. et. al. Digital Library: Gross Structure and Requirements (Report from a Workshop.) IBM Research Report RJ 9840, May 1994. http://www.ifla.org/documents/libraries/net/rj9840.pdf

A digital library is a machine readable representation of materials which might

be found in a university library together with organizing information intended

to help users find specific information. A digital library service is an assemblage

of digital computing, storage, and communications machinery together with the

software needed to reproduce, emulate, and extend the services provided by

conventional libraries based on paper and other material means of collecting,

storing, cataloging, finding, and disseminating informatio n. A full service digital

library must accomplish all essential services of traditional libraries and also

exploit digital storage, searching, and communication.

Public, private, professional, school, commercial, and other kinds of library

emphasize different services, different kinds of information, and different service

styles. While any digital library instance may thus offer only partial services, the

technology suite from which library instances are assembled must permit

assembly of a full service library. In addition, this suite must shield the user

who wishes to draw on multiple libraries from inter-library differences which are

irrelevant to him.

What distinguishes a conventional library from a heap of things to read is

organization provided by someone other than the authors of the collected

materials. For a small, private collection this could be shelf organization; for a

large collection it is typically a descriptive catalog 2 which is distinct from the

collection, with at least one catalog record associated with each item held.

Not every database is a library, but every library is a database 3 . What distin-guishes

a library from an arbitrary database are certain data integrity and

security rules that constitute an implicit contract between custodians and users.

5. The NSF/ARPA/NASA Digital Library Initiative, FY 1994 Na93 states:

“Information sources accessed via the Internet are ingredients of a digital library. Today, the

network connects some information sources that are a mixture of publicly available (with

or without charge) information and private information shared by collaborators. They

include reference volumes, books, journals, newspapers, national phone directories, sound

and voice recordings, images, video clips, scientific data (raw data streams from instruments

and processed information), and private information services such as stock market reports

and private newsletters. These information sources, when connected electronically through

a network, represent important components of an emerging, universally accessible, digital

library.”

Digital Library Initiative, FY 1994, A joint initiative of the National Science Foundation, the Advanced Research Projects Agency, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, U.S. Government document NSF 93-141, (1993).

6. In a prior DL workshop report Fo93,p.65 , we find:

“A digital library is a distributed technology environment which dramatically reduces barriers

to the creation, dissemination, manipulation, storage, integration, and reuse of information

by individuals and groups.”

http://ei.cs.vt.edu/~dlib/def.htm E.A. Fox (ed.), Source Book on Digital Libraries, TR93-35, Dept. of Computer Science , Virginia Tech, (1993);

“Digital libraries are complex data/information/knowlege (hereafter information) systems that

help: satisfy the information needs of users (societies), provide information services (scenarios),

organize information in usable ways (structures), manage the location of information (spaces), and

communicate information with users and their agents (streams).”

(Edward A. Fox, July 1999, according to 5S Framework)

l

“Digital library work occurs in the context of a complex design space shaped by four dimensions:

community, technology, services and content”

(Gary Marchionini and Edward A. Fox, “Progress toward digital libraries: augmentation through

integration”, pp. 219-225, guest editors' introduction to “Progress Toward Digital Libraries”, eds.

Gary Marchionini and Edward A. Fox, Special Issue, Information Processing & Management,

35(3), May 1999.)

l

“The field of digital libraries deals with augmenting human civilization through the application of

digital technology to the information problems addressed by institutions such as libraries, archives,

museums, schools, publishers and other information agencies. Work on digital libraries focuses on

integrating services and better serving human needs, through holistic treatment irrespective of

interface, location, time, language and system. Although substantial collections may be created

solely for the use of individuals, we consider sharable resources one of the defining characteristics

of libraries. Libraries connect people and information; digital libraries amplify and augment these

connections.”

(Gary Marchionini and Edward A. Fox, “Progress toward digital libraries: augmentation through

integration”, Information Processing & Management, 35(3):219-225, May 1999.)

l

For a thoughtful discussion of definitions, approaches, and community perspectives on “digital

libraries” see “What are digital libraries? Competing visions” by Christine L. Borgman, pp.

227-244, in “Progress Toward Digital Libraries”, eds. Gary Marchionini and Edward A. Fox,

Special Issue, Information Processing & Management, 35(3), May 1999.

l

“The generic name for federated structures that provide humans both intellectual and physical

access to the huge and growing worldwide networks of information encoded in multimedia digital

formats.”

(The University of Michigan Digital Library: This Is Not Your Father's Library, Birmingham ,

1994)

l

“Systems providing a community of users with coherent access to a large, organized repository of

information and knowledge.”

(Lynch, 1995)

l

“Digital libraries are a set of electronic resources and associated technical capabilities for creating,

searching, and using information. In this sense they are an extension and enhancement of

information storage and retrieval systems that manipulate digital data in any medium (text, images, sounds; static or dynamic images) and exist in distributed networks. The content of digital libraries includes data, metadata that describe various aspects of the data (e.g., representation, creator, owner, reproduction rights), and metadata that consist of links or relationships to other data or metadata, whether internal or external to the digital library.

(UCLA-NSF Social Aspects of Digital Libraries Workshop)

Digital libraries are constructed — collected and organized — by a community of users, and their

functional capabilities support the information needs and uses of that community. They are a

component of communities in which individuals and groups interact with each other, using data,

information, and knowledge resources and systems.In this sense they are an extension,

enhancement, and integration of a variety of information institutions as physical places where

resources are selected, collected, organized, preserved, and accessed in support of a user

community. These information institutions include, among others, libraries, museums, archives,

and schools, but digital libraries also extend and serve other community settings, including

classrooms, offices, laboratories, homes, and public spaces.” (UCLA-NSF Social Aspects of

Digital Libraries Workshop)

l

“systems providing a community of users with coherent access to a large, organized repository of

information and knowledge. This organization of information is characterized by the absence of

prior detailed knowledge of the uses of the information. The ability of the user to access,

reorganize, and utilize this repository is enriched by the capabilities of digital technology”

(adapted from Interoperability, Scaling, and the Digital Libraries Research Agenda)

l

“Digital library is a concept that has different meanings in different communities. To the

engineering and computer science community, digital library is a metaphor for the new kinds of

distributed data base services that manage unstructured multimedia data. To the political and

business communities, the term represents a new marketplace for the world's information resources

and services. To futurist communities, digital libraries represent the manifestation of Wells' World

Brain. The perspective taken here is rooted in an information science tradition.”

(Research and Development in Digital Libraries by Gary Marchionini)

l

“A digital library is a distributed technology environment which dramatically reduces barriers to

the creation, dissemination, manipulation, storage, integration, and reuse of information by

individuals and groups.”

(Edward A. Fox, editor, Source Book on Digital Libraries, pg. 65)

l

“A digital library is a machine readable representation of materials which might be found in a

university library together with organizing information intended to help users find specific

information. A digital library service is an assemblage of digital computing, storage, and

communicate machinery together with the software needed to reprise, emulate, and extend the

services provided by conventional libraries based on paper and other material means of collecting,

storing, cataloging, finding, and disseminating information.”

(Edward A. Fox, editor, Source Book on Digital Libraries, pg. 65)

l

“an organized data base of digital information objects in varying formats maintained to provide

unmediated ease of access to a user community, with these further characteristics:

– an overall access tool (e.g. a catalog) provides search and retrieval capability over the entire data

base;

– organized technical procedures exist through which the library management adds objects to the

data base and removes them according to a coherent and accessible collections policy.”

(Peter Graham, Rutgers University Libraries)

l

“A library that has been extended and enhanced by the application of digital technology. Important

aspects of the digital library that may be extended and enhanced include :

– Collections of the library

– Organization and management of the collections

– Access of the library items and the processing

of the information contained in the items

– Communication of information about the items “

(Smith, 1995)

7. http://www.nlc-bnc.ca/pubs/nl-news/1998/feb98e/3002-06e.htm

“The literature on digital libraries contains numerous, often dissimilar, definitions of 慸 igital library'. These definitions range from the digital library as a computer data repository or a collection of digital objects, to much broader definitions that consider the digital library to be an extension of the traditional library: that is, a library that carries out the traditional library functions of collection, preservation and access provision, while integrating, to an increasing degree, digital media and remotely accessible digital library services. For librarians, this last definition is most realistic….Digital libraries are libraries , with the same purposes, functions and goals as traditional libraries.” 1

加拿大国家图书馆的数字图书馆理解

8. http://www.dl.ulis.ac.jp/ISDL97/proceedings/collier.html Towards a general theory of the Digital Library

9. http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/staff/accessibility/bobby-report-042099/7b.html Digital Library Definition for DLI2

10. Griffin , Stephen M. (Program Manager of the Digital Libraries Initiative, NSF) interview: “Taking the Initiative for Digital Libraries, ” The Electronic Library, vol. 16, no. 1, Feb. 1998: 24-27.

…digital libraries provide for collection development, organisation, access, annotation and preservation, and deal both with information in digital form as well as digital management of information residing on physical media. My definition places additional emphasis on the need to consider users and usage as part of any analytical framework used to study digital libraries.

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