标签知识组织

知识的接生婆

苏格拉底曾说,他是他的听众的 知识的”接生婆 “。( Socrates said he was the midwife to his listeners, i.e., be made them reflect better concerning that which they already knew and become better conscious of it. If we only knew what we know, namely,k in the use of certain words and concepts that are so subtle in application, we would be astonished at the treasures contained in our knowledge. — Immanuel Kant “Vienna Logic” )知识远比用概念、词汇和句子表达出来的要丰富的多。知识的宝藏需要挖掘。做到这一点对计算机来说将有很长的路要走。

从某种程度上来说图书馆员、教师等作的工作也是”知识接生婆”的工作,他们启迪知识、传播文明、点燃独立人格,使更多的人有尊严地生活。这其中有许多内容是机器永远无法替代的。(当然这只是从职业角度上来说的, 自己是火种才能点燃别人 ,有多少教师、图书馆员有这种职业意识?像 Dead Poets Society里的Keating,或Mona Lisa Smile里的Katherine Watson )?

情报检索与知识组织(2月25日修订)- –

对于知识的认识(包括”知识组织”)在古代应该属于哲学领域,如果沾得上边,后来的图书馆学可以算是一门。图书馆学通过管理知识载体来反映知识结构,并促进知识的有效传播和利用。其中的核心内容”分类编目”堪当此任。

纸、泥板、羊皮、竹、石以及电光磁等媒介是知识的有形载体,书籍、报刊、杂志、图片、动画等是知识的媒体类型,图书馆、博物馆、大学等社会组织可算是知识的交流机构,也是知识运动国政中不可缺少的一种形式。研究知识,这些方面都值得研究。

二战以后诞生的情报学(或也可称为信息学)专注于知识的内容–信息,而把知识的躯壳留给了图书馆学。信息论走的更远,认为信息是”不确定性的减少”或”负熵”。从这一点说信息学和情报学可以分道扬镳了。二战以后的 情报学受到计算机科学发展的影响,但还是基本上从人的角度去研究情报的规律,无法对只能机械操纵符号的计算机提出任何”智能”一点的要求。人为了充分利用计算机的高速运算、大容量存储能力,以及准确性,发明了一整套情报检索技术。

从穿孔卡片开始,人类最早的计算机奴隶就叫做情报检索。一直到后来的字词索引、匹配、倒排档等等。

计算机就象是上帝给人类的一个魅力无穷的玩具,真的让人能够像上帝一样思考了(不知上帝是否会继续发笑?还是发怒?),人类依靠它,在几十年的时间里除了破解了数据的奥秘(关系型数据库技术),拓展了应用的疆域(Internet和Web技术),甚至创造了人类更加富足的信息化社会。这也再次证明了知识的力量。

目前计算机具有的能力与我们人类的需求之间的鸿沟越来越弥合。然而我们还是不得不为人机之间沟通制定一些原则和模式,这样机器才能更好地模仿人的程序处理信息和知识。元数据和知识本体都是这类工具。

我们现在研究知识组织,已经无法不受到计算机科学已有成果的影响。图书馆情报学知识域中有关信息组织(情报检索)的”话语体系”、”领域本体”必须与计算机科学相关的概念体系进行融合,才能发展。所以我们不得不用计算机科学中在知识组织方面的研究进展取代我们传统的情报检索课程内容。这两个领域的发展速度不是一个数量级的,图书馆学的知识组织能够提供计算机科学许多人文滋养,但是如果不承认计算机科学的主体地位,图书馆学的那点经验学识将会荡然无存。计算机科学的发展有如一辆无可回头的蒸汽机车,在历史的进程中摧枯拉朽、一往无前。

近期大量阅读我图书馆学的情报检索、信息组织教材和计算机科学中的知识库研究成果。

首先对张琪玉、侯汉清编的这本《情报检索语言实用教程》非常感兴趣。一本刚出炉的教材,而且是国内该领域的领衔人物的新作,老树开新花,而且书名冠以”实用”,又是武大出的,让人立刻有探个究竟的愿望。

翻开前言,原来是武大出版社委托编写的,让人感到武大对于传统的图书馆学分支学科已经后继无人了。否则恐怕不会委托早已与武大没有瓜葛的两位老人编写。

前言中还说,本书的编写目的是”减少情报语言学领域诸课程之间的重复,精简讲授内容,突出实用性”,看来传统图书馆学科面临的冲击确实不小。

重复课程大概是指”情报语言学基础””图书分类学””主题法导论”之类的课程,与我目前要给北大研究生班上的”信息组织”主题的课程应该有些类似。

减少了不常用的情报检索语言类型和语种、发展历史的讲授。

内容主要包括:

总的看来,体系结构还是比较严谨和全面的。(这本书值得购买收藏)

情报检索语言及情报语言学的基本问题

作者避开情报、信息、文献的概念争论,把这三者的检索和检索系统作为同一概念。也算是一大实用的认识吧。

对于文献的概念,作者没有使用国标中”记录有知识的一切载体”,而解释为:”文献是存储和传递知识、信息的主要载体,所以,利用文献成为获取知识、信息的主要途径。”逃避概念几乎有点过于随意了(捣浆糊)。

对于”情报检索”概念的解释也是非常”图书馆学”化的:”其广义是指通过建立情报检索系统来解决文献查找问题(也就是知识和信息的查找问题)的整个实践,其侠义仅指根据某种需要从情报检索系统中查找出相关文献线索(也称文献检索)或文献中相关内容(也称事实检索、数据检索或全文检索)的操作过程”。可见其感念定义中的同义反复和不严密的地方何其多。并且从计算机界的角度看这些”同类”概念有不少不必要的人为定义和偏差在其中。广义和狭义,到底如何理解?

从作者的角度而言,数字图书馆可以看成是一个情报检索系统,因为是有序的,可以通过多种途径检索的,检索结果也是经过排序输出的,用户能够满足信息需求的。

关于情报检索语言的定义也是本书中非常核心的概念。情报检索语言是根据情报检索的需要而创制的人工语言,专门用于各种手工的和计算机化的情报检索系统,表达文献主题概念和检索课题概念。他作为提供文献内容检索途径的情报检索系统的一个构成因素,在其中起到语言保障的作用。情报检索语言分为分类检索语言、主题检索语言和代码检索语言三大语系。情报检索语言的实质是表达一系列概括文献情报内容的概念及其相互关系的概念标识系统。

作者的一个经典的理论是:情报检索与情报存储是相反过程

情报存储过程:文献的情报内容 – 经过主题分析确立主题概念 – 经过利用情报检索语言的标引过程输入到情报检索系统中。而情报检索过程是一个相反的过程,检索者的情报需要经过主题分析,得出一系列的主题概念,经过情报检索语言的标引之后,通过检索系统进行检索,最后输出检索结果。

情报检索语言的特点:

情报检索语言的基本功能:

术语与情报检索语言是应用于被应用的关系。

概念的概念:概念是事物本质属性的概括。概念的内涵是指它所指事物的本质属性的综合,即概念的含义。概念的外延是它所指的一切事物,即概念的适用范围。

概念之间的关系:

相容关系(概念的外延至少有一部分相重合)

同一关系、属种关系、交叉关系、整体与部分关系、全面与某一方面关系、外延不相排斥的并列关系。

不相容关系:

并列关系(同位关系):同一个上位概念之下的几个下位概念之间的关系;

矛盾关系:并列关系的特殊形式,外延总合等于其上位概念全部外延的两个并列概念之间的关系。如金属材料与非金属材料;

对立关系:外延总合小于其上位概念全部外延的两个并列而且相互对立的概念之间的关系。例如导电体和绝缘体;其上位概念除了这两者之外,还有半导体。

概念的划分与概括(分类)指对概念的内涵而言,内涵的扩大或缩小。

概念的分析与综合(组配)指对概念的外延而言,外延的融合或分化。


Technorati :

JCDL-NKOS Workshop 2005- –

今年 IEEE 和 ACM 联合的 JCDL 将于 6 月中旬在丹佛召开, NKOS 又有一个 Joint Session 。值得一提的是曾蕾和秦健是这个组织的核心成员。下面是他们的工作组计划,也是一个 Announcement ,可以看看今年的动向是什么。

Integration Challenges and Strategies

The 7th Networked Knowledge Organization Systems (NKOS) Workshop

Gail Hodge

Linda Hill

Jian Qin

Douglas Tudhope

Marcia Zeng

ABSTRACT

This year's Networked Knowledge Organization Systems (NKOS) workshop builds on seven years of workshops in the U.S. and Europe on issues enabling networked knowledge organization systems (KOS), such as classification systems, thesauri, gazetteers, taxonomies, and ontologies, to support the description, retrieval, and use of diverse information resources. Now many efforts are underway to research the issues and implement solutions to the challenges of networking and integrating KOS somewhat isolated domains: indexing services and thesaurus builders; computer scientists and system integrators; ontologists; taxonomists; and others. Requirements to solve these integration issues have become mission critical in many cases; the need to support computational, programmatic integration to handle masses of data from independent sources is pushing the research and development agenda. The need to move forward to meet these challenges while at the same time applying the best practices and “wisdom” developed through years of practical experience is acute.

The JCDL-NKOS workshop for 2005 will bring together researchers and implementers from diverse international communities who are developing new models, conducting research, and implementing practical solutions for networking KOS and integrating the associated information and data resources.

Topics may include:

Keywords

Controlled Vocabularies, Thesauri, Topic Maps, Ontologies, Networked Knowledge Organization Systems

AIM AND OBJECTIVES

The primary aim of the workshop is to inform NKOS researchers and practitioners about developments across a number of communities and to identify research and development directions. The objectives are to encourage sharing of new initiatives and lessons learned and to identify collaborative development opportunities.

PROGRAM

Session 1: Welcome and introduction to NKOS and to the workshop

Session 2: Self-introductions and brief descriptions of projects and interests particularly as they relate to the topic of integration and interoperability

Session 3: Case studies about the interoperability and integration of KOSs (approximately 2 presentations)

Session 4 : Presentations on methodologies, tools and strategies (approximately 2)

Session 5 : Presentations on recent related standards activities (approximately 2)

Session 6: Open discussion of the issues raised in the previous sessions

Session 7: Identification of a research agenda based on reactions from a panel of practitioners, software developers, academics and standards developers

WORKSHOP FORMAT

The full-day workshop will include invited and accepted presentations, guided by a program committee. Presentations will be grouped into topic sessions and demonstrations can be set up for access before and after the workshop and during breaks. Discussion and identification of issues will be encouraged by providing a significant amount of time for open discussion and networking opportunities. Participants will be given the opportunity to introduce their work and their interests. The identification of a research agenda will involve significant facilitated discussions.

ATTENDEES

The workshop will be announced via the NKOS listserv, which now has over 100 members from more than 10 countries. In addition, other relevant listservs and groups, such as ASIST-L, ASIST SIG-CR, ECDL, Dig-Lib, ASI, and standards-related groups will be notified. Approximately 25-35 participants are expected, though the organizers would prefer not to limit attendance. If necessary, the participants will be accepted in the order of registration. As in the past, the organizers will work with the JCDL organizers to coordinate logistics and monitor registrations.

WORKSHOP ORGANIZERS (略)

PREVIOUS NKOS ACTIVITIES

This is the 7th in the series of NKOS workshops held in conjunction with the JCDL. Past topics have included protocols for networked KOS, requirements for electronic thesauri, digital gazetteers, and moving traditional KOS into semantic web concepts. Attendance has ranged from 15 to over 50 people. NKOS is an ad hoc working group of academics and practitioners interested in various knowledge organization systems in networked environments. The listserv, hosted by NSF DL2, includes over 100 professionals from more than 10 countries. The NKOS Web site ( http://nkos.slis.kent.edu ) is hosted by Kent State Univ. NKOS-related sessions have been held at ECDL. The ECDL and JCDL NKOS sessions have resulted in proceedings which are available from the NKOS Web site, and in special issues of the Journal of Digital Information.


Technorati : , ,

台湾大学“知识组织”课件参考- –

因要给研究生班开设”知识组织与元数据”课程,系里没有指定教材,目前似乎也没有合适的教材,最近在准备课程内容时发现台湾大学咨询学系(也就是陈雪华教授那里)2003年就开设了类似的课程,名为”知识组织”,且所有课件都可以下载,狂喜。(参见http: //ceiba3.cc.ntu.edu.tw/course/cb9879/)。

看了台大的课程内容, 总的感觉,台大的”知识组织”更加偏重”知识管理”中所需的知识组织,也就是说时下比较热门的、用于许多知识型企业(咨询公司、 IT 研发企业等)的知识组织,而不是源自于哲学认识论、逻辑学或者计算机科学中的知识表示和操纵。因而看起来像是图书馆学、计算机科学与管理学的交叉。内容非常丰富,也很实用,然而就学科体系来说略感凌乱,如果想通过这门课的教授整理一份教材,还需要下不少功夫。
而且毕竟是2003年以前的内容,”知识本体”这两年进展颇多,课程的资料略显陈旧。

北大要求给研究生上课不必详细讲授知识内容,面面俱到,只要有一个大纲,让研究生掌握框架,然后去自学,并且在实践中总结。台大的课件好像也不太符合这个要求,象是给本科生上课。但是我的教材内容还是要准备得尽可能详尽,讲授的时候可以灵活掌握。这样做一方面便于自己形成一些研究课题,也方便学生拿到课件后能够进行自学,并进一步选择研究方向。

重新看一下我准备的课件,元数据部分还是强调的太多,脱胎于元数据讲座,而不是从知识组织角度,更能讲清楚元数据的作用和来龙去脉。


Technorati : , , ,

一些有关知识/信息组织的图书、论述- –

See follows:

知识 / 信息组织相关经典外文书籍和论述

Anderson, J. D. (2003). Organization of knowledge. IN: International Encyclopedia of Information and Library Science. 2nd . ed. Ed. by John Feather & Paul Sturges. London: Routledge (pp. 471-490).

Bade, D. (2002). The Creation and Persistence of Misinformation in Shared Library Catalogs: Language and Subject Knowledge in a Technological Era . David Bade, Urbana, IL: Graduate School of Library and Information Science, University of Illinois; (ISBN: 0-87845-120-X.)

Bliss, H. E. (1929). The organization of knowledge and the system of the sciences . By Henry Evelyn Bliss ; with an introduction by John Dewey. New York: Henry Holt and Company.

Bliss, H. E. (1934). The Organization of Knowledge in Libraries and the subject-approach to books . New York: The H. W. Wilson Company.

Bliss, H. E. (1935). A system of bibliographical classification . New York: The H. W. Wilson Company.

Capurro, R & Hjørland, B. (2003). The Concept of Information. Annual Review of Information Science & Technology, Vol. 37 , Chapter 8, pp. 343-411.

Dewey, J. (1929). Introduction. IN: H. E. Bliss: The organization of knowledge and the system of the sciences . New York, Holt (pp. vii-ix).

Feger, H. (2001). Classification: Conceptions in the Social Sciences. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 3, pp. 1966-1973 . Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, Ltd. (Online version with abstract published 2002)

Frohmann, Bernd. (1990). Rules of Indexing: A Critique of Mentalism in Information Retrieval Theory. Journal of Documentation , 46: 81-101.

Frohmann, B. (2003). Grounding a theory of documentation. Paper presented at DOCAM '03 The first annual meeting of the Document Academy. August 13-15, 2003 at The School of Information Management and Systems (SIMS) at The University of California, Berkeley. http://thedocumentacademy.hum.uit.no/events/docam03.abstract s/bernd.frohman.html

Frohmann, B. (2004). Deflating Information. From Science Studies to Documentation . University of Toronto Press.

Furner, J. (2004). Information studies without information . LIBRARY TRENDS , V52, N3 (WIN), P427-446.

Hjørland, B. (2002). Domain analysis in information science. Eleven approaches – traditional as well as innovative. Journal of Documentation, 58 (4), 422-462.

Hjørland, B. (2002). Principia Informatica. Foundational Theory of Information and Principles of Information Services. IN: Emerging Frameworks and Methods. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Conceptions of Library and Information Science (CoLIS4) . Ed. By Harry Bruce, Raya Fidel, Peter Ingwersen, and Pertti Vakkari. Greenwood Village, Colorado, USA: Libraries Unlimited. (Pp. 109-121).

HULME, E. WYNDAM. 1911a. Principles of Book Classification: Introduction. In: Hulme, E. Wyndam. Library Association Record, 1911; 13: 354-358.

HULME, E. WYNDAM. 1911b. Principles of Book Classification: Chapter II – Principles of Division in Book Classification. In: Hulme, E. Wyndam. Library Association Record, 1911; 13: 389-394.

HULME, E. WYNDAM. 1911c. Principles of Book Classification: Chapter III – On the Definition of Class Headings, and the Natural Limit to the Extension of Book Classification. In: Hulme, E. Wyndam. Library Association Record, 1911; 13: 444-449

ISO 5127: 2001 Information and Documentation – Vocabulary. International Standards Organization.

Miksa, F. (1998). The DDC, the Universe of Knowledge, and the Post-Modern Library­. Albany, NY: Forrest Press.

Richardson, E. C. (1930/1964). Classification: Theoretical and practical . New York: The H. W. Wilson Co., 1930. (Reprinted unaltered 1964)

Sayers, W. C. (1915). Canons of classification applied to “the subject” “the expansive”, “the decimal” and “the Library of Congress” classifications : a study in bibliographical classification method. London: Grafton & Co.

Smiraglia, R. P. (2001). The nature of “a work”: implications for the organization of knowledge. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press.

Sowa, J. F. (2000). Knowledge representation : logical, philosophical, and computational foundations . Pacific Grove, California: Brooks/Cole.

Spang-Hanssen, H. (2001): How to teach about information as related to documentation. Human IT. 2001, (1), pp. 125-143. http://www.hb.se/bhs/ith/1-01/hsh.htm (Visited April 13, 2004).

Steen Larsen, P. (2003). Terms and definitions related to the information process, drawn from ISO 5127: 2001 Information and Documentation – Vocabulary. Unpublished paper.

Svenonius, E. (2000). The Intellectual Foundation of Information Organization . Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press.

Taylor, A. G. (1999). The Organization of information. Englewood, Colorado: Libraries Unlimited.

Thellefsen, T.L. (2002). Semiotic knowledge organization: Theory and method development. Semiotica, 142 (1-4), 71-90.

Webber, S. (2003). Information science in 2003: a critique. Journal of Information Science , 29(4), 311-330.


Technorati : , , ,